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Technical Program

  Tuesday, December 8 Wednesday, December 9 Thursday, December 10
8:45 ‑ 9:00   S5: Keynote II  
9:00 ‑ 9:30 S0: Opening Session S10A: Magnetic Sensors I
S10B: Capacitive Sensors
S10C: Healthcare Applications II
S10D: Optical Sensors I
9:30 ‑ 10:00  
10:00 ‑ 10:15 S1: Keynote I
10:15 ‑ 10:30  
10:30 ‑ 10:45    
10:45 ‑ 11:30 S6D: Mechanical Sensors I
S6A: Temperature, Humidity and Flow Sensors
S6B: Sensors for Water Monitoring
S6C: Sensors and Signal Analysis
S11A: Current Sensors
S11B: Optical Sensors II
S11C: Motion Sensors and Tracking
S11D: WSN, IoT and Cloud Computing
11:30 ‑ 11:40  
11:40 ‑ 12:15 S2A: Gas and Chemical Sensors I
S2B: Biosensors I
S2C: Wireless Sensor Networks I
S2D: Sensors for Novel Applications I
12:15 ‑ 13:10 S7: Combined Lunch and Short Oral Session I  
13:10 ‑ 13:15    
13:15 ‑ 14:00   S12C: Special Session on Sensors and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring
S12D: Color, Light Sensing and Gas Sensors
S12A: Magnetic Sensors II
S12B: Spectroscopy Techniques
14:00 ‑ 14:10   S8: Invited Talk II
14:10 ‑ 14:45 S3: Invited talk I
14:45 ‑ 15:00  
15:00 ‑ 15:30 S13A: FPGA and Embedded Platforms
S13B: Intelligent Sensing
S13C: Ultrasound, Infrared and Imaging
S13D: Educational and Other Applications
15:30 ‑ 15:50  
15:50 ‑ 16:10 S9A: Sensors for Novel Applications II
S9B: Smart Phone, WSN and SSN
S9C: Microwave and Radar
S9D: Healthcare Applications I
16:10 ‑ 16:30  
16:30 ‑ 16:45 S4A: Wireless Sensor Networks II
S4B: Humidity, pH, Flow and Color Sensors
S4C: MEMS and NEMS
S4D: S4D: Image, Vision and Range Sensors I
 
16:45 ‑ 17:15 S14: Closing Ceremony and Prize Distribution
17:15 ‑ 17:38  
17:38 ‑ 18:18    

Tuesday, December 8

09:00 - 09:30 S0: Opening Session Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

10:00 - 11:30 S1: Keynote I Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Prof. Subhas Mukhopadhyay, Massey University, New Zealand
10:00 AM to 10:45 AM Keynote #1: Sensors and Computational Physiology
Professor Peter Hunter
Director of the Bioengineering Institute
University of Auckland,
and
Director of the Medical Technology Centre of Research Excellence.
10:45 AM to 11:30 AM Keynote #2: Information Fusion and Sensor Network Surveillance
Professor Henry Leung
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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11:40 - 13:10 S2A: Gas and Chemical Sensors I - Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Pavel Shuk (Emerson, USA)
11:40 Chemical vapour sensing using power spectrum of 1/f noise of graphene
Kazi Rafsanjani Amin and Aveek Bid (Indian Institute of Science, India)
In this paper we present sensing of chemical vapour based on scaling of resistance fluctuation of of single layer graphene (SLG). Increase of variance of resistance fluctuation of device in presence of chemical vapour makes noise a very sensitive tool for detection. Analysis of the effect of presence of chemicals in the ambience of graphene on the 1/f noise spectrum is analyzed. Change in noise presents a method of detection with sensitivity and specificity, with response time much smaller than timescales related to resistance change.
pp. 1-5
11:58 A multi-wavelength opacimeter for NOx and soot
Harald Axmann (AVL DiTEST GmbH, Austria); Alexander Bergmann (AVL List GmbH, Austria); Bernd Eichberger (Graz University of Technology, Austria)
A novel method to simultaneously determine the concentration of particles and NO2, the main pollutants in the exhaust of diesel engines, is presented. It is based on multi-wavelength extinction measurement followed by a mathematical inversion algorithm. This paper gives an overview of the extinction measurement in general and extends the principle to a multi-wavelength measurement setup. The applicability of this new method is derived and validated with first experimental results as well as with simulations.
pp. 6-11
12:16 Oxygen Gas Sensing Technologies: A Comprehensive Review
Pavel Shuk (Emerson, USA); Robert Jantz (Rosemount Analytical Inc., USA)
Different oxygen gas sensing technologies, i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, paramagnetic and tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) are reviewed in details. Special attention is given to the theoretical aspects and operation basics of the technologies, application limits and analyzers or system requirements. A comprehensive technologies review is supported with the latest developments trends especially on the potentiometric zirconia and tunable diode laser analyzers.
pp. 12-17
12:34 Synthesis of Macro-porous SnO2 for Chemical Gas Sensor
No-Kuk Park (Institute of Clean Technology & Yeungnam University, Korea); Tae Jin Lee, Tae Hoon Lee, Yeon Baek Seong, Jin Wook Lee, Min Jung Kim, Chang Joon Park and Won Young Choi (Yeungnam University, Korea)
Macro-porous tin oxide was prepared as an enhanced sensing material for sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide. Poly-styrene(PS) was used as a template for the formation of macro-pores. Tin chloride was used as a precursor for the synthesis of tin oxide, and was impregnated over PS beads using a rotary vacuum evaporator. The solid Sn/PS material was treated thermally for 4 h at 600 oC. The porous morphology of tin oxide prepared in this study was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of this material measured by the nitrogen adsorption method was approximately 85 m2/g. The response of macro-porous tin oxide as a chemical gas sensor was measured using an I-V source meter and the change in signal was observed with the repeated injection of hydrogen sulfide and air. The sensing tests for macro-porous tin oxide were carried out at 250 oC and the fast response of macro-porous sensing material was also confirmed.
pp. 18-21
12:52 An Experimental Study on the Use of EIS as a Tool for Categorizing Black Tea
D M Gamage Preethichandra (Central Queensland University, Australia)
Tea taste sensing is a very complex activity usually carried out by industry experts. In order to automate this process, there have been numerous approaches to develop an electronic tongue. This paper describes an approach based on electrochemical impedance spectrometry of black tea liquor. The initial experimentation illustrates that the Nyquist plot of the tea liquor displays a significant difference between the considered various types of black tea. They can easily be categorized into different groups or clusters depending on the real and imaginary impedance as well as their temperature dependencies.
pp. 22-25
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S2B: Biosensors I Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Takehito Azuma (Utsuminiya University, Japan)
11:40 FPGA based System for Blood Glucose Sensing using photoplethysmography and online motion artifact correction using Adaline
Swathi Ramasahayam (IIIT-H, India); Lavanya Arora (IIITH, India); MadhuBabu Anumukonda (International Institute of Information Technology - Hyderabad, India); Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury (School of Computing and Electrical Engineering, IIT Mandi, India)
This paper proposes a non invasive blood glucose sensing system using photoplethysmography (PPG). Neural network based adaptive noise cancellation (adaline) is employed to reduce the motion artifact. Also artificial neural network is used to create the predictive model which estimates the glucose levels based on PPG signals. Error in estimating glucose levels came out to be 5.48 mg/dl using ANN on MATLAB. This predictive model created by ANN has been implemented on FPGA. Error in estimating glucose levels by the ANN model implemented on FPGA, came out to be 7.23mg/dl. The results have been validated by performing Clarke error grid analysis.
pp. 26-31
11:58 DNA Methyltransferase activity detection using the personal glucose meter
Zhiqiang Gao, Huimin Deng and Si Ying Png (National University of Singapore, Singapore)
DNA methyltransferase (MTase), which catalyses the DNA methylation process, plays an essential role in gene transcription and is a potential biomarker for many types of cancer. Leveraging on the ease of use and portability of the readily accessible personal glucose meter (PGM), a simple method for the highly selective and quantitative detection of M.SssI CpG methyltransferase (M.SssI MTase) activity is developed. DNA-Invertase conjugates were hybridised with complementary biotin-modified DNA strands and these DNA duplexes were captured onto streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. Thereafter, methylation by M.SssI MTase was carried out, followed by restriction digest by Hpa II. The 5'-CCGG-3' sequence present in the DNA duplexes serves as the recognition site for both Hpa II and M.SssI MTase (5'-CG-3'). Hpa II specifically cleaves at unmethylated 5'-CCGG-3' sequence, and the invertase that remains on the methylated DNA, catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose. It was found that the amount of glucose, indicated by the read-out signal of the PGM, is proportional to the M.SssI MTase methylation activity in the range of 0.5 to 80 U/mL with a limit of detection of 0.37 U/mL. This proposed method also showed high selectivity for M.SssI MTase, due to the highly specific recognition sequence present in the DNA strands. Inhibition studies with 5'-azacytidine demonstrated the capability of inhibition screening.
pp. 32-37
12:16 Modelling Impedance for 3D Impedimetric Biosensor
Johnny Yeh, Kevin I-Kai Wang and Zoran Salcic (The University of Auckland, New Zealand); Karthik Kannappan and Ashton Partridge (Digital Sensing Limited, New Zealand)
There is a growing need for new biosensing technologies that are more rapid and convenient to use for onsite sensing. Impedance-based electrochemical sensor is a promising candidate due to simplicity of its sensing mechanism. However, like other emerging biosensors, specificity, sensitivity, and reliability are major obstacles that limit their use in real-life applications. Electrode geometry and 3D shape design optimization have been popular research directions for improved sensor performance. The aim of this study is to develop a finite element modelling approach that allows calculation of electrode impedance for different electrode shapes under standard biological test medium. In addition, a method for comparing sensor sensitivity is also developed using bacterial target as case study. Impedance simulations were performed for different electrode shapes, namely flat, ridge, and trough. The effects of target binding on solution conductivity and diffusion were simulated. It was found trough shaped electrode showed the greatest change in diffusion impedance upon target recognition. However, different shapes gave maximum change in solution impedance depending on the position of bound target.
pp. 38-43
12:34 Graphene-based lectin biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of glycan structures applicable in early diagnostics
Ludmila Klukova, Jaroslav FIlip and Jan Tkac (Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia)
It is a well-known fact that various pathological conditions result in an increased concentration of specific substances (biomarkers) in blood or urine. Some biomarkers may carry on their surfaces characteristic saccharide structures (glycans), which may have a different structure comparing to normal (healthy) physiological condition. This means, that glycan profiling can distinguish between healthy and sick individuals and, in some cases, even determine the stage of the disease. Glycoprofiling of biological samples is relatively demanding and often requires complex instrumentation. In addition, many of currently used methods involve labelling or fragmentation of target molecules, which can eventually influence whole analysis. Contrary to this, electrochemical methods provide very sensitive, rapid and simple analysis of intact glycoproteins in real samples, without the need of labelling, which makes them a strong tool for biosensor construction and optimization. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins able to recognize free, mono- and oligosaccharides or even whole cells. Therefore, lectin biosensors are very promising candidates for glycan analyses and they can be used even in case when the target is unknown. Nowadays, the term of biosensors is inextricably linked with the concept of nanotechnology. Since 2004, graphene attracts worldwide attention in the field of (electro)biosensing thanks to its impressive properties. In our work we have demonstrated that graphene-materials are prospective tool for fabrication of lectin-based biosensor allowing different way of lectin immobilization. Moreover, prepared biosensor is able to recognize femtomolar concentration of analyte. Therefore there is no doubt, that electrochemical biosensors, which combine specific qualities of lectins and unique features of graphene materials, are innovative approach in glycoprofiling, yet this concept is still rare.
pp. 44-49
12:52 Mouth guard type biosensor "cavitous sensor" for monitoring of saliva glucose
Takahiro Arakawa, Yusuke Kuroki, Hiroki Nitta, Koji Toma, Shuhei Takeuchi, Toshiaki Sekita, Shunsuke Mizukuchi and Kohji Mitsubayashi (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan)
We have developed detachable "Cavitas sensors" into human cavitas sites of oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor based on the integration of Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes with an enzyme membrane on a mouth guard was developed and tested. This mouth guard type biosensor was integrated with a glucose sensor and wireless measurement system. The electrodes were formed on the mouth guard surface which made of a polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG). The Pt working electrode was coated with the glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. In the investigation of in-vitro characterization, the biosensor showed excellent relationship between the output current and the glucose concentration. In artificial saliva consisting of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor exhibits high-sensitive detection in a range of 5-1000 μmol/L. We demonstrated the capability of the sensor and wireless communication module to characterize an inclusion in oral phantom that imitative structure of human oral cavity. Stable and long-term monitoring (more than 2 hours) using telemetry system was established. The mouth guard biosensor would be useful for real-time and non-invasive method as a novel health care management.
pp. 50-53
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S2C: Wireless Sensor Networks I Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Satoshi Ikezawa (Waseda University, Japan)
11:40 Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring the Health of Healthcare Facility Environments
D M Gamage Preethichandra (Central Queensland University, Australia)
continues health monitoring of healthcare facility environments is vital in maintaining their quality of service standards. This paper discuss a suitable hardware implementation using reconfigurable network nodes to setup such a network with monitoring facilities to measure multiple gas concentrations, light and noise levels, and people movement information within the facility. These information can be fused together to make vital decisions alerting the healthcare facility staff to attend to a particular location without having dedicated staff for continuous monitoring. This will help dedicating the healthcare facility staff for other important care duties while the wireless sensor network looks after the health of the facility environment.
pp. 54-57
11:58 Medical WSN: Defense for Selective Forwarding Attack
Avijit Mathur and Thomas Newe (University of Limerick, Ireland)
The requirements of a Medical Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSN) may vary compared to other networks. The variations could be at different levels i.e. network level, clustering level or security level. This paper looks at the necessary requirements, with particular focus on clustering and routing. It includes an implementation of a MWSN in Contiki operating system using Tmote Sky and openmote technologies. This implementation incorporates a mechanism for the election of a cluster head, and the case of a modified secure routing algorithm. The results are provided with simulation-based, and real world measurements. The paper presents single and collaborative selective forwarding detection and correction with an accuracy check. Additionally, a solution to the problem of malicious nodes dropping control messages has been provided. The uniqueness of the paper resides in the system's capability in detecting and correcting both single and collaborative selective forwarding attacks with 93% and 86% accuracy respectively.
pp. 58-62
12:16 Using Wireless Sensor Network to Determine Pollination Readiness of Oil Palm Flower
Mohamed Rawidean Mohd Kassim (MIMOS, Malaysia); Ahmad Nizar Harun (Mimos Berhad & Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
This paper presents the architecture and implementation of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for Precision Agriculture in an palm oil plantation application. The architecture comprises of four main parts; sensor tip, mote, router and gateway. This paper in detail discussed how wireless sensors are used in a palm oil plantation to monitor the temperature and other parameters of a mother palm to find the best time to start an artificial pollination process. Pollination is the process of transferring pollen from the male reproductive organ to the female reproductive organ of a flower. It enables fertilisation, and subsequently reproduction and fruit development of a plant to occur, providing a natural but essential service in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. The inaccuracy in determining pollination readiness of the oil palm flower could potentially cause a detrimental effect on the palm oil industry in the long run.
pp. 63-68
12:34 Data Aggregation in Multihop Wireless Mesh Sensor Neural Networks
Bhushan Gurmukhdas Jagyasi (TCS Innovation Labs Mumbai & Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India); Jabal Raval (TCS Innovation Labs, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd., India)
Wireless sensor networks have been found to be useful for detection of events like volcanic eruption, landslide, and agricultural crop stress. The problem of in-network data aggregation for binary event detection has been well studied in literature for multihop wireless sensor networks with tree topology. In this paper, we propose a novel Neural Network based distributed detection approach for multihop wireless sensor networks with mesh topology. As compared to the tree topology, the unidirectional mesh topology resembles more closely to a neural network wherein each sensor node has been modeled as a neuron in the neural network. An exhaustive analysis has been presented to compare the proposed approach with the existing approaches for tree topology along with their modified counterparts for the mesh topology. The simulation results depicts a substantial gain in the detection accuracy by the proposed neural network based data aggregation approach in wireless mesh sensor networks as compared to the other existing methods for tree and mesh topologies of the wireless sensor networks.
pp. 69-74
12:52 Prototyping a Voice-Controlled Smart Home Hub Wirelessly Integrated with a Wearable Device
Olivia Ojuroye, Adriana Wilde and Russel Torah (University of Southampton, United Kingdom)
The collection of uninterrupted data describing real user behaviour remains an open challenge in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) research. This paper proposes a solution to disrupted ADL experimental data collection by developing a prototype system of a flexible, voice-controlled wearable device with a wireless smart home hub. Development included surface mounted components, inkjet printing, a Raspberry Pi, voice-recognition software, LilyPad Arduino, and XBee modules. This proof-of-concept system has shown the feasibility of building such a system, and the prototyping process helped highlight areas of further improvements needed in future implementations.
pp. 75-79
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S2D: Sensors for Novel Applications I Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Ibrahim Al-Bahadly (Massey University, New Zealand)
11:40 Smart Behavior Tracking System for People with Disabilities at the Work Place
Ghassan Kbar (Riyadh Techno Valley-Research Center, Saudi Arabia)
Assistive technologies that implement the right solution for People with Disabilities (PWD) through innovative technological friendly interface can empower them to work normal at the workplace. Tracking PWDs movements and linking it to behavior algorithm is useful to inform their caregiver as well as alerting them for missing activities. Different tracking system can be used to determine PWDs' location but this requires a proper algorithm to determine their behavior in order to assist them at the workplace. This paper presents a unified interface for PWD with multiple impairment conditions by supporting essential features for getting help information from the environment, helping them to communicate with others smartly, and providing flexible interface that is adaptable to meet their requirements. It also supports event and personal monitoring as well as location tracking to intervene if necessary and guide PWD to behave normally. This smart interface solution is being developed within the of SMARTDISABLE's research project activities implemented to support PWDs at the workplace. This solution supports wide-spectra of PWD groups (11 groups with various combinations of disabilities) with ability to manage the system interface using multi-model ways of interactions and commanding through use of speech recognition engine, text-to-speech, Mic, and mouse/keyboard.
pp. 80-85
11:58 Remote monitoring system for deadlocks
Ibrahim Al-Bahadly (Massey University, New Zealand)
This paper outlines the development of a remote monitoring system for deadlocks; in the aim of improving peace of mind, and adding an extra layer of security at a low cost. The literature research covers the flaws and commonalities of door security, explores different wireless protocols, passive sensors, and microcontroller to internet interface strategies. The development then goes through the mechanical, electrical, and network design of the prototype resulting in a low cost monitoring system that runs in 2 modes. Both modes have a range of 25m and differ in battery lifespan and response time. One mode has a response time of 42.3ms and a battery life of 83 days, where the other has a worst case response time of 20.06s and a battery life of 0.69 years. The first mode was deemed unsuccessful with such a short battery life, whereas the second was deemed a success. Although response time was not added as a specification, it is recommended that in future work it be included. Work that is not included in this paper, but is recommended for future work, is an in depth security analysis and development for wireless node security, and sensor integration with already present security system and/or devices.
pp. 86-91
12:16 Surface Plasmon Resonance based on phase detection technique for glycerin analysis
Muhammad Kashif (BZU, Pakistan); Ahmad Ashrif A. Bakar, Noorfazila Kamal and Fazida Hanim Hashim (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia); Saiful Dzulkefly Zan (UKM, Malaysia)
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a popular method for the analysis of molecular interaction. There are many different approaches for the detection of SPR, however, the Phase detection method is quite sensitive in that it shows a much sharper change under SPR compared with other alternatives such as intensity and angle interrogation techniques. The SPR phase sensor can detect very low concentration levels of Glycerin that is not possible with intensity and angle based detection methods. Experimental results obtained from Glycerin-Water mixture show that SPR Phase interferometer with continuous phase change allows the detection of very low levels of Glycerin concentrations. Such an improvement in SPR Phase sensor can make it a more suitable option for biomedical applications.
pp. 92-95
12:34 Uncertainty analysis of a vibrating-wire system for magnetic axes localization
Domenico Caiazza (University of Sannio & CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland); Pasquale Arpaia (Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universitá del Sannio, Italy); Carlo Petrone and Stephan Russenschuck (CERN, Switzerland)
A statistical approach to the uncertainty reduction of a vibrating-wire system for the measurement of magnetic axes in accelerator magnets is presented. A surface response methodology is employed to relate metrological performance to system design parameters by means of a suitable model based on analysis of means. The model is identified by means of experiment design based on an orthogonal array and its significance is verified by analysis of variance. The impact of each design parameter on the metrological performance is assessed and useful indications are derived for future improvement. Validation experiments are carried out on a permanent quadrupole magnet for the Compact Linear Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.
pp. 96-101
12:52 Non-contact Head Gesture Maneuvering System for Electric Wheelchair using a Depth Sensor
Hirofumi Ohtsuka, Takahiro Kashimoto and Tatsuya Kato (NIT, Kumamoto College, Japan); Koki Shibasato (National Institute of Technology, Japan)
Population of elderly people has been increasing not only in Japan but also in many countries. For the purpose of expanding the active field of them and persons with disabilities, and of improving their quality of life (QOL), the development of an intelligent wheelchair has been intensively studied . In this research, a new maneuver interface of the electric wheelchair instead of the joy-stick is considered. To develop such an interface, this paper deals with a simple non-contact detection method of horizontal head gesture motion using a depth sensor.
pp. 102-107
13:10 Development of a Sensor System for Vegetable Oil Authentication
Salifu Osman, Alex Mason and Jeff Cullen (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
There is an increasing interest in the classification of vegetable oils as an effective means to examine authenticity and to detect possible adulteration of extra virgin olive oils with seed oils or low-quality olive oils. Classical methods such as, Gas Chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, are too expensive for widespread industrial use and require samples to be analysed in dedicated laboratories thus incurring a significant time penalty. This paper demonstrates that microwave spectrometry is able to offer real-time measurement of olive oils adequate for determining product authenticity. It does this by evaluating a sensor system used to measure the dielectric properties as against the spectrophotometric characteristics of extra virgin olive oil and other common-place edible oils. In particular, the capability of the system to distinguish between these oils, even when mixed, is demonstrated. The dilution in different range of proportions of extra virgin olive oil with a refined olive oil were tested using the IDE sensor. The VNA was set to span from 10 kHz to 15GHz. The results are compared with spectrophotometric readings set between 650 and 700nm wavelengths of the same samples. The analysis show that there is a matching correlation in both methods
pp. 108-113
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14:10 - 16:10S3: Invited talk I - Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Dr. Octavian Postalace, Escola de Tecnologia e Arquitectura, ISCTE-IUL
Instituto de Telecomunicacoes
Lisbon, Portugal
2:10 pm to 2:40 pm Oxygen gas sensing technologies: a comprehensive review
D Sc. Pavel Shuk
Rosemount Analytical Inc.
Emerson Process Management (USA)
2:40 pm to 3:10pm Smart instrumentation and sensing system for remote water quality surveillance
Prof. Joyanta Kumar Roy
MCKV Institute of Engineering, India
3:10 pm to 3:40 pm Mechanical flexible sensors based on silicon and organics
Prof.Tayeb Mohammed-Brahim
Head of Microelectronics & Microsensors Department, Institute of Electronics and Telecommunications
Rennes 1 University
and
Director of the Common Center on Microelectronics
west of France
Russia
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16:00 - 17:48 S4A: Wireless Sensor Networks II Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Tapas Chakravarty (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, India)
16:00 Time Synchronization using Distributed Observer algorithm with Sliding mode control element in Wireless Sensor Network
Tze Hui Yew (Intel Microelectronics, Malaysia); Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
This paper describes a novel distributed observer algorithm which uses augmented sliding mode control element for time synchronisation purpose in a wireless sensor networks (WSN). Time synchronisation is a prevalent and an important issue in the field of WSN. Local clocks on each nodes within any interconnected WSN should have exchanged messages with a common time reference. Referencing to a distinct(unsynchronised) value of virtual global reference clock will render the nodes communication and application in WSN useless. The algorithm proposed in this paper known as Time Synchronization using Distributed Observer algorithm with Sliding mode control element (TSDOS) features a useful switching action, common in control research, which provides a salient feature in guaranteeing finite-time convergence in synchronised virtual time clock estimation error. The main purpose is to achieve global clock synchronization with faster convergence speed and reduced synchronization error. TSDOS has the characteristics of being totally distributed, asynchronous, scalable across different network topological structures and robust to ad-hoc nodes deployment and link failures. Communication link node deployment and link failure scenario are simulated comprising of 9 WSN nodes. The adoption of TSDOS shows that the faster convergence in time synchronization has been successfully achieved in comparison to the conventional distributed scheme.
pp. 114-119
16:18 Dynamic Duty Cycle-based Wireless Sensor Network for Underground Pipeline Monitoring
Liming Qiu, Kevin I-Kai Wang and Zoran Salcic (The University of Auckland, New Zealand)
The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based pipeline monitoring systems are expected to have long life time in order to make their deployment cost-effective. In reality, wireless transceivers are considered one of the main consumers of energy in individual sensor nodes of WSNs. The duty cycling technique which puts transceiver module into sleep state for the majority of sensor node's operating time is considered a highly effective method to reduce energy consumption. In this paper we present the use of Wake-on-Radio (WoR) for reduction of used energy and conducted power consumption experiments using CC430-based WSN nodes. The results show promising performance improvement when using WoR in the CC1101 radio transceiver of CC430. Then, an adaptive duty cycle algorithm based on the WoR functionality, which enables sensor nodes to dynamically adjust their WoR duty cycles according to the real-time wireless channel conditions in achieving reduced power consumption, was proposed.
pp. 120-125
16:36 A Low-Cost, Rapid-Deployment and Energy-Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network for Air Quality Monitoring
David Chavez (Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Peru); River Quispe Tacas (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Peru); Jorge Rojas Mendoza (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru & Rural Telecommunication Research Group, Peru); Andres Jacoby Krateil (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru & Rural Telecommunication Group (GTR), Peru); Guillermo Garayar (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Peru)
Air quality is an essential factor to assess the health and life quality of people. However, air pollution has become an acute problem in major cities of developing countries due to the rapid industrialization and poor handling of air pollutants. In this scenario, air quality monitoring practices have been scarcely implemented largely because of the relatively high cost and technical complexity of Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Stations (CAQMS). This paper proposes a low-cost, rapid-deployment and energy-autonomous solution based on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to improve the assessment and the understanding of air quality in developing countries urban areas, thus helping policy makers and scientists to better handle air pollution. The proposal incorporates the use of a website to display collected data and processed information in order to empower citizens with knowledge about the air they breathe.
pp. 126-131
16:54 Syncim: a new impersonation attack against chip synchronization in WSN
Arash Tayebi, Stevan Mirko Berber and Akshya Kumar Swain (University of Auckland, New Zealand)
This study proposes, a new impersonation attack, called Syncim, against chip synchronization in wireless sensor network. In this attack, the adversary tries to impersonate the pilot signal. Thus, the victim node would be synchronized with the adversary instead of the legitimate transmitter. When this attack is successfully performed, the adversary can hijack the connection and perform a man in the middle attack. The effects of this attack are mathematically analyzed and the minimum signal power required by the adversary to perform Syncim is derived. It has been shown that in order to perform this attack, the delay between the adversity signal and the legitimate transmitter should be less than half a chip duration.
pp. 132-136
17:12 Using atmospheric temperature variations for thermal energy harvesting for wireless sensors
Frank Lebahn and Hartmut Ewald (University of Rostock, Germany)
Using more and more sensors, an increase in complexity and quantity of wiring is the consequence. This can be solved by using wireless sensors which are powered by energy harvesting. For this purpose, thermal energy harvesting by using atmospheric temperature variations is investigated by using a test setup in a climate cabin with a 65 minutes temperature cycle with minimum temperature of -40°C for 6 minutes. The results shown a maximum reached temperature difference is 37.5 K which results in 6 mW electrical power the chosen thermos-electric generator (TEG) produces. Utilizing an energy-harvesting power management unit to the setup results in a maximum electrical energy conversion efficiency of 92% and a maximum electrical storage power in a supercapacitor of 5.5 mW. The overall electrical energy the TEG generates is 8.85 J. The total energy that is stored in the supercapacitor is 7.85 J, which is an overall energy conversion efficiency of 89%. The results of using two identical TEGs parallel in the same thermic setup shows the limitation of this.
pp. 137-141
17:30 A Passive Wireless Tracking System for Indoor Assistive Monitoring
Yau Hee Kho (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan); Nguan Soon Chong (Swinburne University of Technology, Malaysia); Refik Caglar Kizilirmak (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan)
This paper presents a design concept and implementation of an indoor passive tracking system that utilises an array of Wi-Fi transceivers, and without any electronic device or tag attached to the object being tracked. Such tracking is made possible by exploiting the fundamental characteristic of signal attenuation due to object blocking, i.e. shadowing, that is prevalent in a typical wireless communication system. By detecting significant signal attenuation in the system (i.e. by measuring the received signal strength value), it is possible to infer that an object is blocking the line-of-sight (LOS) link in a transceiver set and therefore transforming the existing hardware configuration into a proximity sensors network.
pp. 142-146
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S4B: Humidity, pH, Flow and Color Sensors Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Joyanta Kumar Roy (MCKV Institute of Engineering & System Advance Technologies Pvt. Ltd., India)
16:00 High sensitivity extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometer for humidity sensing
Joaquin Ascorbe, Carlos Sanz and Jesus Corres (Public University of Navarra, Spain); Francisco J Arregui (Universidad Publica de Navarra, Spain); Ignacio R. Matias (Public University of Navarra, Spain); Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
In this work a high sensitivity optical fiber humidity sensor is presented. The configuration chosen for this purpose is a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The device has been fabricated by means of sputtering. A semiconductor material was used to build the nano-cavity where the interferometry is produced. Then the device was introduced into a climatic chamber in order to change relative humidity. Changes of 88 nm have been obtained for relative humidity varying from 20% to 90%, which implies a sensitivity of 1.27 nm/%RH
pp. 147-150
16:18 An Ocean Sensor for Measuring the Seawater Electrochemical Response of 8 Metals Referenced to Zinc, for Determining Ocean pH
Martin Brooke, Elijah HJ Cole and Julian Dale (Duke University, USA); Eeshan Bhatt (Woods Hole, USA); Anshuman Prasad, Henry Quach, Rebekah Bau and Douglas Nowacek (Duke University, USA)
We describe the use of a multi-metal electrochemical cell for measuring ocean pH. The sensor was designed to be robust, inexpensive, and capable of 0.02 sensitivity to pH in the narrow ranges required for marine pH monitoring. A prototype sensor has undergone an extended ocean deployment with promising results.
pp. 151-154
16:36 In-line flow measurement of molten PLA in capillary flow channels using ultrasound
Veronika Putz (Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH, Austria); Sylvia Apostol (IPEC, Austria); Ramesh Selvasankar (Battenfeld-Cincinnati Austria GmbH, Austria); Thomas Voglhuber-Brunnmaier (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Jürgen Miethlinger (IPEC, Austria); Bernhard G. Zagar (University of Linz, Austria); Thomas Buchegger (Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH, Austria)
Pulsed Wave Velocimetry (PWV) is an ultrasonic technique for measuring velocity profiles in flowing liquids. With an earlier prototype, we already demonstrated its applicability to monitor the flow behavior of molten polypropylene with different additives in capillary dies. In this contribution, we present an improved measurement setup, which allows testing liquids with temperatures > 220°C using a large bandwidth ultrasound transducer (UT). The UT works at room temperature and is acoustically coupled to the melt using a wave guide. The setup comprises active cooling and enables long-time in-line measurement. In this contribution, we show results obtained in-line during the extrusion of polylactide (PLA) with glass fibers at various feed rates. Using the acquired data, methods to calculate acoustical properties like the speed of sound and the damping in melt are discussed.
pp. 155-160
16:54 A bioimpedance-based microflow cytometer with compact electronic instrumentation for counting of microparticles
Soumen Das and Debanjan Das (IIT Kharagpur, India); Sudip Maiti (Kalyani Government Engineering College, India); Karabi Biswas (I.I.T. Kharagpur, India)
Cell counting in microfluidic platform finds many interesting applications in healthcare and medical technology. In microflow cytometers, cells are counted based on either optical or electrical properties. In this paper, a bioimpedance based microflow cytometer has been fabricated to detect and count the microparticles flowing through a microchannel. The numerical simulation suggests that the proposed device is capable to detect microparticles having different sizes and properties. Initially, the signal produced from cytometer are collected by data accusation system demonstrating generation of voltage pulse corresponding to each particle. Additionally, an instrumentation system has been developed to detect and count those pulses in real-time and display on a screen.
pp. 161-165
17:12 Chroma based Colour Enhancement for Improved Colour Segmentation
Feng (Teddy) Su and Gu Fang (University of Western Sydney, Australia)
There are many applications rely on the use of colour segmentation in image processing. The major challenge with colour segmentation is that there is no unique solution as each person perceives and segments the colours in images differently. The segmentation results are also heavily influenced by environment factors such as lighting conditions and noise levels. In addition, existing methods tend to focus on the segmentation stage alone and employ little to none for pre-processing. Thus it can be a challenge task to develop an efficient colour segmentation method. In this paper, a novel colour enhancement method is introduced to boost the colour saliency of the critical regions and to improve the consistency of segmentation results by maximizing chroma while preserving hue. Tests in various common colour models using Euclidean distance segmentation method have shown that images pre-processed with the novel colour enhancement method produced much more accurate and reliable colour segmentation results than images without the enhancement or enhancement using existing methods.
pp. 166-171
17:30 Color Enhancement For Images From Digital Camera Using A Transformation-free Approach
Ngaiming Kwok (The University of New South Wales, Australia); Gu Fang (University of Western Sydney, Australia); Haiyan Shi (Zhejiang University of Technology, P.R. China)
Digital color images, in three color channels, are capable of presenting hue, saturation, and intensity perceptions to the human visual system. Improvement on color images quality should therefore be considered to simultaneously enhance all these attributes. An efficient approach was here developed aiming at mitigating the heavy computational burden, in conventional approaches, arising from the need to transform the source color space into an alternative working space. Color correction based on the white-point assumption is first carried out, and then enhancement is derived from an intensity guided operation that simultaneously improves the contrast and saturation qualities. Experiments were conducted using a collection of real-world images captured under various environment conditions and enhancements were obtained both in subjective viewing and metrics in colorfulness, saturation and contrast.
pp. 172-176
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S4C: MEMS and NEMS Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: K. Tashiro (Shinshu University, Japan)
16:00 Detection of Cardio Auscultation Using MEMS Microphone
MadhuBabu Anumukonda and Prasada Raju Lakkamraju (Center for VLSI and Embedded Systems Technology, IIIT-Hyderabad, India); Swathi Ramasahayam (IIIT-H, India); Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury (School of Computing and Electrical Engineering, IIT Mandi, India)
The heart sound signals can be detected at all four cardio auscultation points using different microphones. This paper covers the detection of heart sound signals (S1 and S2) using the inexpensive MEMS microphone. It has the analysis of the heart sounds using Fast Fourier transform to detect the high intensity peaks of S1 and S2.
pp. 177-181
16:18 Surface analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube cleaning and activation processes: thermal and oxygen plasma techniques
Jin Woong Kim, Jong Hyun Kim and Joon Hyub Kim (Korea University, Korea); Min Jung Song (Kyonggi University, Korea); Ki Beom Kim and Nam Ki Min (Korea University, Korea)
O-dichlorobenzene (DCB) has been widely used as a dispersion agent in carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode devices. However, some DCB molecules remain on surface of CNTs due to DCB-CNT interaction, causing the device properties to degrade because the DCB agent is an insulator. Thus the removal of residual DCB molecules from CNT surface is crucial for electronic device applications. Here the removal effect and surface characteristics of thermal- and O2 plasma-cleaning treatments for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) electrodes were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Their electrochemical properties were examined by cyclic voltammetry and square-wave voltammograms. O2 plasma treatment was found to have a markedly higher cleaning capability and surface modification of SWCNT electrodes, compared to a thermal cleaning method.
pp. 182-185
16:36 Synthesis and characterization of Zinc and Tin Oxide Nanowires for the detection of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
Dario Zappa (CNR-INO SENSOR Lab, Italy); Veronica Sberveglieri (CNR-INO Sensor Lab, Italy); Elisabetta Comini, Giorgio Sberveglieri and Francesca Barisani (University of Brescia, Italy)
Zinc and Tin Oxide nanowires were synthetized by vapor-phase growth on alumina substrates, in order to fabricate conductometric chemical sensing devices. Materials were morphologically characterized by FE-SEM, and structurally by mean of XRD and Raman spectroscopy, confirming the crystallinity of both materials. These devices were then mounted inside an electronic nose and their performances were evaluated in real measurements towards a specific matrix composed by Parmigiano Reggiano, a famous Italian cheese. The two materials behave very differently in presence of the target compound.
pp. 186-190
16:54 Nanowire device ( S3 ) to characterize the genuine aroma of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
Veronica Sberveglieri (CNR-INO Sensor Lab, Italy); Estefania Nunez Carmona and Andrea Pulvirenti (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy)
Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) is a much-appreciated cheese all over the world although it is produced in a little region in the northeast part of Italy from raw bovine milk. The production and elaboration of this kind of cheese is based in a very restrictive normative that is regulated by the "Consorzio del Formaggio Parmigiano Reggiano" (CFPR) and has the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). One of the main problems of the grated and packed PR is the presence of false PR such as cheese produced in different areas. The aim of this study is to establish a new, rapid, easy-to-use, economic and non-destructive fouling based on nanowire technology applied in the Small Sensors System (S3) device to control the presence of false grated PR. S3 device was used to establish the specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) composition of real grated PR. The obtained result attest that the instrument is able to discern between the different samples being an optimal tool to be applied in the quality control process of the PR production chain.
pp. 191-194
17:12 Waveguiding Performance of Rhodamine 6G Doped Polymer Nanowire
Zhang Yundong (Harbin Institute of Technology, P.R. China)
We report the waveguiding performance and guide loss both of straight and bent dye doped polymer nanowires. We also demonstrate Rhodamine 6G Doped Polymer nanowires with diameter of 500 nm, were fabricated into self-coupled resonator. Single-mode lasing peak centered at 542.2 nm was obtained in the spectrum. The self-coupled resonators perform better mode selection compared with the linear structure nanowires, which can be utilized to realize tunable laser systems and enhance the coupling efficiency of emission in ultra-small resonators.
pp. 195-198
17:30 Photoelectric Characteristics of Schottky Diode Based on a Ge/Si Core/Shell Nanowire
Dongwoo Suh (ETRI, Korea); Lin Chen and Wei Lu (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA)
Schottky photodiode fabricated with Ge/Si core/shell nanowires grown on Si (111) was quantitatively analyzed in terms of electrical properties as well as microstructure. The present device comprised of single nanowire shows quite high sensitivity of pA at ~ 3 micrometer. We scrutinized the electrical characteristics of the nanoscale Schottky junction at forward and reverse bias ranges with only classical I-V measurement.
pp. 199-202
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S4D: Image, Vision and Range Sensors I Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: D M Gamage Preethichandra (Central Queensland University, Australia)
16:00 Development of a multispectral imaging system for apple firmness prediction
Jason Sun and Rainer Kunnemeyer (University of Waikato, New Zealand); Andrew McGlone (The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, New Zealand); Philip Rowe (Accelerenz Limited, New Zealand); Sadhana Talele (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Multispectral imaging has been studied in recent years as a means of assessing fruit firmness. Here we report on the development of a static multispectral imaging system (MSI) that was used to validate the potential of the technique for high-speed commercial grading. The system consists of a high-performance CMOS camera, four lasers, electronically controlled shutters and a location control system. It captures four spectral scattering images on the fruit. In this study 100 'Royal Gala' apples have been measured using the static MSI. The MSI measurements were applied on the intact apple and also on a flat surface of internal flesh exposed by removing a thick skin slice. The scattering profiles were fitted with a standard light diffusion model and a heuristic modified Lorentzian model. The results showed that the correlations between Penetrometer firmness and model parameters were poor, with the correlation coefficient, r, ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 in the best circumstance of the flat surface measurements Although multivariate models can improve the correlations, this work suggests that laser scattering information on its own is not sufficient to predict the firmness.
pp. 203-206
16:18 Imaged Based Species Recognition System
Achala Perera and John Collins (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
Animal species recognition is one area in which a limited amount of research has been undertaken. Especially in the pest control domain, basic primitive technologies are still used, such as identifying species in a tracking tunnel by capturing ink footprints on paper. These traps only differentiate various species by varying the baits used in the trap. This is not a reliable method. The main aim of this research is to develop a species recognition system for traps. This system uses an eigenface based identification technique. This imaged based sensing application is focused on feral rodents such as possums, cats and weasels. Traditionally, the eigenface technique is used in the human face recognition domain. This technique is novel in animal species recognition domain. When the technique was applied to animal images with different backgrounds, it had 55%, 33% and 45% successful detection rates for possums, cats and weasels respectively. Once the background is removed from the training images the detection rate increased significantly to 65%, 52% and 64% respectively.
pp. 207-211
16:36 Development of Human-fingertip-sized Three-axis Tactile Sensor Based on Image Data Processing
Masahiro Ohka and Ryota Nomura (Nagoya University, Japan); Hanafiah Yussof (Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia); Z. N. Ismarrubie (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
In order to increase the versatility of multi-fingered humanoid robot hands, we designed a human-finger-sized three-axis tactile sensor using a simple structure. Since we adopted a feeler-less structure for miniaturization, we acquired the three-axis tactile data via image data processing. With this sensor design, we solved the intrinsic problem of the ordinal three-axis tactile sensor's insensible zone. In a series of verification experiments, the sensor measured variation in normal force in the range of 0 to 2.5 N; furthermore, it detected variation in tangential force in the range of 0 to 0.25 N under 1.5-N normal force.
pp. 212-216
16:54 Image Repainted Method of Overlapped Leaves for Orchid Leaf Area Estimation
Ya-An Chan (National Taiwan Uniersity, Taiwan); Min-Sheng Liao (National Taiwan University, Taiwan); Chien-Hao Wang (National Taiwan Uniersity, Taiwan); Yeun-Chung Lee and Joe-Air Jiang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Currently, Internet of Things (IoT) has become a hot issue. For agriculture, IoT techniques bring many advantages, such as lowering the time consumed and the manpower required by real time data collection. Taiwan is one of the main orchid exporters in the world, and orchid export accounts for over 70% of the total floral export in Taiwan, and the species of phalaenopsis accounts for 60 % of the floral export. In a previous study, the IoT technique was utilized to automatically measure environmental factors and orchid leaf traits. An automatic image collecting system and an image processing method were employed to calculate the leaf area and the growth rate of the leaf area which was positively related to the blooming quality. However, when calculating the leaf area, the overlapping leaves caused inaccurate results. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method to repaint the overlapped area. The leaves of orchids are symmetrical, and this feature is utilized to obtain the overlapped area and repaint the area. Finally, two data sets of processed images are collected to verify the proposed method. This paper provides an effective method of repainting overlapped leaf areas. Using the proposed method and the leaf area estimation method can reduce the error caused by leaf overlapping and increase the accuracy of leaf area estimation and growth rate calculation.
pp. 217-222
17:12 Infrared Multispectral imaging with Silicon-based multiband pass filter and infrared focal plane array
Risako Ueno (Corporate Research & Development Center of Toshiba Corp, Japan); Koichi Ishii (Corporate Research & Development Center of Toshiba Corporation, Japan); Kazuhiro Suzuki, Hiroto Honda and Hideyuki Funaki (Corporate Research & Development Center of Toshiba Corp, Japan)
This paper reports the implementation of a silicon-based infrared (IR) multiband pass filter (BPF) on an uncooled microbolometer IR focal plane array (IR-FPA), both of which are fabricated by the standard CMOS process. IR spectroscopy has been widely used as a sample identification technique, exploiting the fact that each molecule structure has a unique spectral feature. Using IR-BPF and IR-FPA, a low-cost and compact IR-spectral imaging system is realized. The microbolometer IR-FPA exhibits broad spectral response sufficient to cover the IR-region from the mid-infrared (3 μm) to far-infrared (8 μm~), which is broader than the coverage of conventional non-silicon-based photodetectors such as mercury cadmium telluride. Single-band images of invisible gases such as ethanol vapor and CO2 in breath are obtained with the IR-FPA. For multiband imaging, a guided-mode resonance IR filter is fabricated by patterning aluminum (Al) layer of 100 nm thickness on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Measured peak transmittance wavelengths (?c) of square and hexagonal Al array are compared with results of rigorous coupled-wave analysis, as a function of the Al pattern period. The ?c of 3.3, 3.9, and 4.4 μm are obtained at the pattern period of 1.8, 2.4, and 2.8 μm for the square array. In all cases, the ?c slightly decreases for the hexagonal array. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of each filter is approximately 200 nm for the ?c of 4.4 μm, 400 nm for ?c of 3.3 μm.
pp. 223-226
17:30 On the Brightness Control of ACO-OFDM based VLC Systems
Refik Caglar Kizilirmak and Yau Hee Kho (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan)
In this work, we analyze the brightness performance of asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) based visible light communication (VLC) systems. We specifically consider analog dimming where the brightness is controlled by the average forward voltage/current of the LEDs. In ACO-OFDM, the forward current of the LEDs can be jointly controlled by the DC-bias and useful signal power which have direct impact on the signal-to-noise-distortion-ratio (SNDR). In this work, we maximize the SNDR for a targeted brightness level by jointly optimizing the DC-bias and useful signal power levels. We further propose clipping the positive part of the half-wave symmetry information waveform instead of the negative part (for ACO-OFDM signal generation) in order to achieve higher SNDR values at high brightness requirements.
pp. 227-230
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Wednesday, December 9

08:45 - 10:15 S5: Keynote II Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Dr. Akshya Swain, Auckland University, New Zealand
8:45 AM to 9:30 AM Keynote #3: Sensor Networks and New Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems
Professor Zoran Salcic
University of Auckland,
New Zealand
9:30 AM to 10:15 AM Keynote #4: Wire sensor methods for measuring field harmonics, gradients and magnetic axes in accelerator magnets
Dr. Carlo Petrone
Magnetic Measurement group
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Geneva, Switzerland
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10:45 - 12:15 S6A: Temperature, Humidity and Flow Sensors Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Ikuo Ihara (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan)
10:45 A Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Temperature Measurement in Hypersonic Flows
Yi Jin, Dong Peng and YongGang Gu (University of Science and Technology of China, P.R. China)
Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), as a time-resolved in situ and non-intrusive technique which allows combined measurement of selected gas concentration, temperature and velocity, has shown great potential and advantages in ground tests. Recent advances make it increasingly common to use multiple lasers for simultaneous measurements, this is to say, TDLAS have the capability of temperature tracking measurement of multiple flow field which suggest excellent potential for flow diagnostics. A Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with two specific line pairs near 1.4 μm has been developed for temperature measurement(230K-1000K) in the shock tunnel using two techniques (a scanned-wavelength direct absorption and a scanned-wavelength technique with wavelength modulation and 2f/1f detection). For DAS two DFB diode laser are used to scan over different H2O absorption transitions (7095.85cm-1 and 7168.437cm-1) at a 15kHz repetition rate. For WMS another line pair(7168.43cm-1 and 7185.597cm-1) was selected and the scanned rate is 1kHz with 250kHz modulated rate. In the shock tunnel test with Mach 6, the time-resolved static temperature of the nozzle exit flow is monitored using DAS and that of State 5 shock tube flow is measured by WMS. Based on temperature measurement the experimental investigation on air vitiation effects was carried out. Tunable diode laser absorption measurement is promising for development into routine diagnostic tools for quasi-one dimensional flow in the shock tunnel. And that is important for reliability judgment of aerodynamic/heat ground tests under hyper-sonic flow in the shock tunnel.
pp. 231-234
11:03 On the Temperature Assignment Problem and the Use of Confidence Textures in the Creation of 3D Thermograms
Antonio Ordonez Müller and Andreas Kroll (University of Kassel, Germany)
In infrared thermography, the temperature measured by a thermal imaging device varies with the position and orientation of the camera with respect to an object's surface. 3D thermography has hence the potential to depict the surface temperature of objects with higher fidelity than conventional 2D thermography. So far the problem of assigning temperature values that correspond to the same surface but were obtained from different perspectives has been addressed by simply overwriting previous values with new values or by averaging the measured values according to a weighted averaging scheme. A new approach to map temperature values onto a 3D model is proposed that results in a more faithful representation of an object's real surface temperature in form of a 3D thermogram. Temperature values are assigned in real time to the 3D model taking into consideration the observation conditions under which they were measured. These conditions are also made available to the user in form of textured 3D models, where the texture color depicts the level of confidence associated to the thermal measurements. These textures provide additional useful information about the 3D thermogram. The new approach is especially helpful in the real-time generation of 3D thermograms as the user gets live feedback on the quality of the thermal model being generated.
pp. 235-240
11:21 Automated Bias-removal Resistance Measurement Circuit for Precision On-Site Temperature Calibration
Ciaran Doyle, Daniel Riordan and Joseph Walsh (Institute of Technology, Tralee, Ireland)
An innovative process is proposed for the calibration of thermometric devices, combining materials which change state at primary temperature calibration points defined in international standards, and electrical impedance measurement techniques. The process will use pure samples of such materials and a measurement apparatus which enables the automated matching of the elimination of measurement bias to each of a number of calibration points, improving resolution and accuracy. The proposed process will be low-cost to allow implementation and regular calibration of temperature sensing and controlled devices in a standard manufacturing process.
pp. 241-246
11:39 Ambient Temperature Effect on Amorphous Silicon (A-Si) Photovoltaic Module Using Sensing Technology
Syed Zahurul Islam and Norman Mariun (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Mohammad Lutfi Othman (Universiti Putra Malaysia & Center for Advanced Power and Energy Research, Malaysia); Hashim Hizam (UPM university, Malaysia); Izham Z. Abidin (Universiti Tenaga Nasional & UNITEN, Malaysia); Arash Toudeshki (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
Temperature and solar irradiance are the two dominating cardinals that determine the electrical performance of Photovoltaic (PV) module. In this paper, an experiment is conducted considering Amorphous Silicon (A-Si) PV module in both indoor and outdoor condition to investigate the temperature effect on A-Si module's performance in terms of efficiency and output power through an automatic resistor selection system. The experimental result shows that A-Si PV module has small temperature coefficient effect; however it has higher effect on solar radiation coefficient. A comparison analysis is evaluated with different models to validate the experimental data.
pp. 247-253
11:57 Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux Using Ultrasound
Ikuo Ihara (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan); Akira Kosugi (Mitsubishi Electric Co., Japan); Shingo Isobe (JFE Engineering Co., Japan); Iwao Matsuya (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan)
Noninvasive and quantitative method for measuring both temperature distribution near heating surface of a material and heat flux through the heating surface is presented. In the method, temperature distribution of a heated material is determined by a combined technique consisting of an ultrasonic pulse-echo measurement and an inverse analysis coupled with a one-dimensional finite difference calculation, and heat flux is then estimated from the determined temperature distribution near the heating surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, an experiment with a single-side heated steel plate is carried out. Ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements are performed with the heated steel plate, and measured ultrasonic signals are used for the analysis to determine internal temperature distributions of the plate and then heat fluxes through the heating surface are determined. The temperature distributions estimated by the ultrasonic method agree well with those measured by thermocouples installed in the plate, and the validity of the heat flux estimated by the present method is also investigated. It has been observed in the experiment that heat flux through the heating surface increases rapidly just after heating starts and then decreases gradually with elapsed time.
pp. 254-257
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S6B: Sensors for Water Monitoring Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Veronica Sberveglieri (CNR-INO Sensor Lab, Italy)
10:45 Small Sensor Sistem S3 device to control the microbial contamination in water
Estefania Nunez Carmona (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy); Veronica Sberveglieri (CNR-INO Sensor Lab, Italy); Andrea Ponzoni and Dario Zappa (University of Brescia, Italy); Andrea Pulvirenti (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy)
The control and sanitation of water it's a worldwide concerning problem. In particular is in developing countries where the need is more evident due to the lack of sources and appropriate structures to cope with the outbreaks of waterborne diseases. In most of cases, the cause of these significant epidemiological events have microbial origin. Despite of it the situation of water supplies and sanitation has improve all over the world in the last decades. Nanowire technology has already shown their ability to perform very effective and fast monitoring microbiological spoilage and quality control. The aim of this study was test the ability of a novel S3 (Small Sensor System) nanowire device for the detection of complex mixtures of bacteria in potable water in order to approach a real condition in cooperation with GC-MS- SPME technique. The achieved results notably advocate the use of EN as a very easy to use, fast and accurate tool in water quality control.
pp. 258-262
11:03 The feasibility of electromagnetic waves in determining the moisture content of concrete blocks
Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
In some of the tropical countries such as Malaysia, various conditions of temperature and rainfall throughout the year are severe when compared to European countries. Humidity and rainfall throughout the year are likely to affect the durability of material used in buildings. Very high level of rainfall causes significant issues in concrete flat roofs due membrane failure. This would potentially contribute to the occurrence of severe roof leaks, especially for buildings that use flat roof design solutions. Membrane failure is hard to recognise due to the slow process of water leakage into the surface which most of the time causes dampness and reduces buildings' structural performance. To monitor this condition effectively, non-destructive test methods are required to recognise problems at an early stage to avoid further damages to concrete structure. This paper presents the use of electromagnetic waves for the purpose of monitoring concrete blocks' moisture level which will be highlighted. This study experimentally investigated the propagation of EM waves through the concrete blocks and their interaction with water. Novel microwave sensor described in the paper operates in the 2GHz to 6GHz frequency range using a Vector Network Analyser. Results of experimental tests confirmed that microwaves could be used as an alternative non-destructive method for identifying water ingress into the concrete blocks.
pp. 263-268
11:21 Proposal of Innovative Leak Sensing Systems for Water Distribution Networks
Laura Fabbiano (Politecnico di Bari, University, Italy); Gaetano Vacca and Giuseppe Dinardo (Politecnico di Bari, Italy)
This paper describes two innovative, simple and low cost sensing systems to detect eventual leaks in a pressurized fluid distribution network, such as an urban aqueduct. Both the techniques use micro-sensors (MEMS) of different nature, the first sensing vibrations, the second sensing pressures. The first technique bases its principle on the comparison of vibration signals acquired upstream and downstream of the section of whatever long but continuous pipe under test; differences in the acquired signals would indicate leaks of fluid. The leading idea comes out from the linear relationship existing between the radial acceleration amplitude transmitted by the turbulent flow to the pipe walls and its flow rate. The second methodology principle is based instead on the measurement of the fluid pressure gradients acquirable in correspondence of two suitable consecutive elbows present along a continuous pipe, because of its functional dependence on the flow rate running in it. Both the methods are thought to use wireless MEMS, accelerometers or pressure transducers respectively, to drastically reduce the cost of the monitoring and inspections of great fluid distribution networks, in particular, with respect to traditional technologies. The goal of the proposed methodologies is also to reduce the inspection times that are typically required by traditional leak detection methods, especially for large networks. Applications are easily expected in industry.
pp. 269-273
11:39 Electrochemical Impedimetric Sensing of Nitrate Contamination in Water
Li Xie (Massey University & Palmerston North, New Zealand); Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand); Subhas Mukhopadhyay and Lucy Burkitt (Massey University, New Zealand)
This paper describes the design and development of a sensing system to detect the nitrate concentration level by using planar interdigital sensor immersed in the water sample. Water samples were prepared containing two different salts, Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) and Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) with the concentration ranging from 0.02 mg/L to 10 mg/L by using the serial dilution method. The water sample was tested by both the commercial equipment (LCR meter) and designed system. Although a difference was observed between these two results, the designed system shows a good linear relationship between the low concentration (0.02 - 0.5 mg/L) of the water solution and the real part of the impedance. However, the relationship was changed from linear to logarithmic scale at the high concentration (0.05 - 10 mg/L) of the water solution. The computational formula of concentration was formed from these results. This system has a potential to be used in-situ nitrate contamination detection with real-time monitoring.
pp. 274-279
11:57 Garden watering system based on moisture sensing
Ibrahim Al-Bahadly (Massey University, New Zealand)
Garden centres supply many different plants which will have varying watering needs. Each plant must receive the correct amount of water. Too much water may starve the plant's roots of oxygen and cause them to rot; too less water and the plant will not receive the nutrients in needs to survive. A garden centre must cater to each plant's watering needs in order to maintain a high level of health in their plants. Currently, many garden centres use a timer-controlled sprinkler system to water their plants. This has a disadvantage in that the timer system has no means of measuring the moisture level of the soil, which may lead to over-watering of certain plants. This paper presents a system that is capable of measuring the amount of moisture in the soil and determining whether or not the soil required water. The system utilizes a Dual Output Tap Timer, consisting of two motorized water valves, to simulate a garden centre's sprinkler system. A Teensy 2.0 microcontroller acted as the control system, controlling the motorized valves and reading signals from two simple moisture sensing circuits. The testing of the system proved that plants can be watered based on the moisture level of the soil. It also showed that the soil probes needed to be much more reliable in order for the system to be successful.
pp. 280-285
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S6C: Sensors and Signal Analysis Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Rainer Kunnemeyer (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
10:45 Study of More Efficient Vibration Signal Processing Techniques for Anomalies Detection
Giuseppe Dinardo (Politecnico di Bari, Italy); Laura Fabbiano (Politecnico di Bari, University, Italy); Gaetano Vacca (Politecnico di Bari, Italy)
The proposed research is aimed to study the most suitable method for a clearer interpretation and estimation of transient phenomena detectable in vibration signals of rotating machinery, when characterized by anomalies. The signals, which are going to be considered here, pertain industrial applications (i.e., machinery and turbo-machinery monitored status and usury). The paper explores the application of time-frequency based analysis techniques for the detection and feature extraction from the change of vibration signals caused by common machinery faults. The purpose here is to provide a more suitable criterion to detect anomalies, through the analysis of vibrational signals, on the basis of the kind of information from the signal itself.
pp. 286-291
11:03 Improvement of Signal-to-Noise-Ratio by Combining Walsh and Golay Codes in Modulating the Pump Light of Phase-Shift Pulse BOTDA Fiber Sensor
Saiful Dzulkefly Zan (UKM, Malaysia); Tsuneo Horiguchi (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan); Ahmad Ashrif A. Bakar (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia)
We report in this paper the simultaneous employment of two different coding techniques called Walsh code and Golay code for modulating the pump light of Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) fiber optic sensor. In this technique, the elements of Walsh code are nested within each element of Golay code and vice versa. The technique also modulates the pump with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) formats for the inner and outer codes, respectively. Experimental findings have revealed that the proposed coding technique contributed to higher signal-to-noise improvement ratio (SNIR), compared to that of using only one kind of code; we obtained the maximum optical SNIR of about 6dB. We have also successfully demonstrated 10-cm of high spatial resolution measurement with the use of 1ns of coded pulse duration.
pp. 292-296
11:21 Improving Avalanche Photo Diode linearity through dynamic stabilization of APD junction temperature
Pavel Margulis (Applied Materials (Israel) Ltd., Israel)
Avalanche photo-diode (APD) is a solid-state photo-sensor with controlled internal avalanche gain M. APD gain M depends on an APD reverse bias voltage Vrb, applied to APD junction, and on an APD junction temperature Tj. Both those dependences are especially strong for high APD gains (high M). Therefore, an ability to use APD in high gain application directly depends on APD bias voltage Vrb stability and noise and also on stability of APD junction temperature. Both, APD bias voltage and its junction temperature, will be influenced by the APD current IAPD and also by fast APD current's changes. In APD industrial applications its signal current may change in range of up to 1000 and more. As a result a heat dissipated on the APD junction by (Vrb *IAPD) may change accordingly, and it will cause a change in junction temperature and, as result, in an APD gain error. In order to reduce an APD non-linearity due to its gain error, a special APD reverse bias voltage supply circuit configuration and a novel APD mechanical structure have been developed. Dynamic thermal simulations were performed with results, which support a goal of APD gain error minimization.
pp. 297-305
11:39 Analyzing Artificial Neural Networks and Dynamic Time Warping for Spoken Keyword Recognition Under Transient Noise Conditions
Paulo Lopez-Meyer (Intel Corporation & Intel Labs, Mexico); Hector Cordourier-Maruri (Intel Corporation, Mexico); Arturo Quinto-Martinez (Intel, Mexico); Omesh Tickoo (Intel, USA)
Spoken keyword recognition has been under the spotlight for the past several decades, but has gained significant attention in recent years due to the rapid increase in front-end technology applications for mobile and wearable computing. This work presents the trade-off in performance between Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) methodologies, implemented for this task under three different transient noise conditions (car, pub and outdoors), where no external noise reduction pre-processing is used. For this purpose, two types of recognition models were implemented: speaker dependent (SD) and speaker independent (SI). Experimental results show comparable high keyword recognition precision in SD models for both ANN and DTW using baseline data, i.e. no transient noise, but for the SI models, a significant drop in precision was observed for the case of DTW. Additional precision analyses present the results on how the different types of transient noise affect the recognition methodologies of interest. From the point of view of storage resources, both methodologies require comparable memory usage for the SD models, however, the SI model increases the memory needed with the DTW methodology. Lastly, time performance analysis showed a faster recognition time using the ANN methodology.
pp. 306-309
11:57 Performance Improvement of NN Based RTLS by Customization of NN Structure - Heuristic Approach
Bartosz Jachimczyk and Damian Dziak (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland); Wlodek J. Kulesza (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden)
The purpose of this research is to improve performance of the Hybrid Scene Analysis - Neural Network indoor localization algorithm applied in Real-time Locating System, RTLS. A properly customized structure of Neural Network and training algorithms for specific operating environment will enhance the system's performance in terms of localization accuracy and precision. Due to nonlinearity and model complexity, a heuristic analysis is suitable to evaluate NN performance for different environmental conditions. Efficiency of the proposed customization of a Neural Network is verified by simulations and validated by physical experiments. This research also concerns the influence of size of Neural Network training set. The results prove that, better localization accuracy is with a NN system which is properly customized with respect to a training method, number of neurons and type of transfer function in the hidden layer and also type of transfer function in the output layer.
pp. 310-315
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S6D: Mechanical Sensors I Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Norbert Schwesinger (Technische Universität München, Germany)
10:45 A Model-based Approach for Monitoring of Ball Nose Milling by Force Sensing
Yoke-San Wong (National University of Singapore, Singapore); Kommisetti V.R.S. Manyam (Applied Materials, Singapore); Geok Soon Hong (National University of Singapore, Singapore)
Ball nose milling is most commonly used in computer-controlled sculpture surface machining using computer numerical control (CNC) machines. Tool condition monitoring (TCM) for the ball nose milling by CNC machines will significantly improve machining efficiency, minimize inaccuracy, minimize machine down time, and maximize tool life utilization. Central to TCM is tool wear monitoring and wear monitoring of ball nose milling poses new challenges compared with the conventional machining. In this paper, a model-based approach to estimate the tool wear profile along the cutting edge for ball nose milling is presented. The model-based approach uses a geometric model and a cutting force model to characterize the ball nose milling process and estimate the tool wear profile. The geometric model is used to determine the geometric features, such as the chip load along the cutting edge, and friction length for given tool path direction and the cutting parameters. The cutting force model is developed using the chip load about the cutter rotation axis and the cutting coefficients. The chip load is derived from the geometric model, while the cutting coefficients are determined using the chip load and experimentally measured cutting force when machining on an inclined plane. To verify the proposed tool wear estimation models, experiments were conducted on a hemispherical work piece with different sequence of cutter path directions to simulate variable contact between the ball nose cutter and the work piece surface as encountered in sculptured machining. The tool wear profile was measured and compared with the estimated tool wear profile from the models. Two other model-based approaches were also compared with the proposed approach for tool wear profile estimation and the best and robust match was observed for the proposed approach.
pp. 316-320
11:03 A triaxial cutting force measurement utilizing an embedded transducer on a spindle rotating tool
Jaharah A. Ghani (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia); Muhammad Rizal (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia & Syiah Kuala University, Malaysia); Che Hassan bin Che Haron (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia); Mohd Nuawi (UKM, Malaysia)
This paper presents the development of an embedded force transducer for cutting force measurement in a milling process. A cross beam type transducer is selected as the sensitive element of the designed sensor system. By using strain gauges, this system is capable of measuring the triaxial cutting force in rotating coordinate-based, including the main cutting forces, Fc, thrust force, Ft, and perpendicular cutting force, FcN. This sensor system is equipped with a wireless telemetry system to transfer the force signal to the data acquisition device. The sensor is experimentally investigated and calibrated. Transducer sensitivity, cross-talk and results of the machining signal are presented. As well as the cutting force measurement, this triaxial transducer could be used on milling and drilling operations.
pp. 321-326
11:21 Decoupling Method Solving Axial/Transverse Forces Crosstalk in Retinal Microsurgery's Force Sensing Instruments
Abdulfatah Abushagur Ghaith Abushagur (Univirsiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Engineering Faculty & Univirsity Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia); Ahmad Ashrif A. Bakar (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia); Saiful Dzulkefly Zan (UKM, Malaysia); Norhana Arsad (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia); Sahbudin Shaari (Institute of MicroEngineering & Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Malaysia)
Epiretinal membrane is a common disease of the eye which can cause severe loss of vision. Membrane peeling is the promising treatment in which surgeons use a miniature needle with a pick to peel off the membrane. However, due to the fragility of the retinal tissues, lack of force perception has made the procedure too risky to perform. Hence, development of smart tools/needles that use fiber Bragg grating (FBG) force sensors has been extensively reported. The main challenge was and yet is to decouple completely between axial and transverse forces. In this paper for the first time, we propose theoretically a novel method to decouple with high accuracy between the two force components. For the sake of holding out the method, only 2-DOF is considered here. Simulation was carried out to simulate 2-D needle integrated with two FBGs. One of which is a tapered FBG placed at the neutral axis of the needle for axial force measurement, while the second is normal FBG bonded on the needle's surface to mind the lateral force. As the strain applied, the bandwidth of the FBGs is only analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to show how force vectors can be measured in reality.
pp. 327-331
11:39 Modeling-free evaluation of resonant liquid sensors for measuring viscosity and density
Thomas Voglhuber-Brunnmaier (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Alexander Niedermayer, Martin Heinisch, Ali Abdallah and Erwin Reichel (Johannes Kepler University, Austria); Veronika Putz (Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH, Austria); Roman Beigelbeck (Center for Intergrated Sensor Systems, Austria); Bernhard Jakoby (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
A performance estimation method for resonant viscosity and density sensors is described. The ultimate sensor precision and the separability of density and viscosity from measured frequency spectra are estimated. The approach relies on using recently introduced models which are flexible enough to describe a large class of sensors. It is therefore not required to develop a specific sensor model and a parameter extraction method for each newly devised sensor. With the method introduced in this contribution, it is sufficient to adjust and validate a general model using at least three test liquids. Then, the error propagation and the error bounds for viscosity and density can be estimated and consequently the required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or the amount of required data points can be determined. This method enables direct comparison of different sensor setups as will be demonstrated for piezoelectric tuning fork sensors, inductive platelet sensors and steel tuning forks.
pp. 332-337
11:57 Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux Using Ultrasound
Ikuo Ihara (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan); Akira Kosugi (Mitsubishi Electric Co., Japan); Shingo Isobe (JFE Engineering Co., Japan); Iwao Matsuya (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan)
pp. 332-337
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12:15 - 14:00 S7: Combined Lunch and Short Oral Session I

Chairs: Michael J. Haji-Sheikh (Northern Illinois University, USA), Ian G Platt (Lincoln Agritech Ltd, New Zealand)
12:15 Fabrication and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Defect Detector for Laser Welding Joint on Stainless Steel Pipe
Makoto Sonehara (Shinshu University & Faculty of Engineering, Japan)
Inline total inspection of the laser welding joint of ultra-fine suction stainless steel pipes for medical apparatus is very important. An electromagnetic defect detector for laser welding joint on stainless steel pipe was proposed. The electromagnetic defect detector consists of a figure-eight detection coil and an exciting coil. The stainless steel pipe with laser welding joint (i.e. "acceptance") is fixed in a coil of the figure-eight coil. And the pipes of inspection target are passed through another coil. When the "acceptance" is passed through the coil, the output voltage e8 in the figure-eight coil equals zero. It is judged as an acceptance certainly. On the other hand, when a stainless steel pipe excluding the welding joint or the pipe with a defect (i.e. "reject") are passed through the Coil 2, e8 ? 0 is obtained. The authors fabricated and evaluated the electromagnetic defect detector. The detector was able to determine the acceptance of the reject at the laser welding joints on stainless steel pipe.
pp. 338-341
12:19 Traffic Adaptive Backoff for Inter-cluster Communications in IEEE802.15.4 Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks with Spatial Non-uniform Traffic
Akiyuki Yamauchi, Kazuo Mori and Hideo Kobayashi (Mie University, Japan)
The difference in transmission performance arises among child cluster heads (CCHs) on inter-cluster communications in cluster-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with spatial non-uniform traffic because several CCHs with different traffic loads communicate to their parent cluster head on shared communication channel. Against this problem this paper proposes traffic adaptive backoff control mechanism to mitigate this performance difference. The proposed mechanism performs autonomous priority control by adjusting backoff exponent (BE), which is one of typical control parameters for backoff control in slotted CSMA/CA access. Performance evaluations by computer simulation show the proposed mechanism mitigates the performance difference among the CCHs with different traffic loads under spatial non-uniform traffic conditions.
pp. 342-347
12:23 Physical and chemical factors influencing the continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide using NDIR sensor
Jo-Chun Kim, Trieu-Vuong Dinh, In-Young Choi and Kyu-Yong Song (Konkuk University, Korea)
A Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) sensor for carbon monoxide (CO) was used to investigate the effects of physical and chemical factors on the accuracy of the sensor. The sensor's measurement range was 0.05 - 200 ppm. It was found that the measurement error of NDIR at 50 ppm of CO was the lowest. Moreover, the increase of concentrations of the interferential gases (CO2, NO, NO2) led to the decrease of the NDIR accuracies. It was observed that the temperature of the inlet gas did not significantly affect NDIR measurement. On the contrary, the accuracy of the devices was gradually declined with the increase of humidity at 50 ppm of CO
pp. 348-351
12:28 Hetero-core fiber optic humidity sensor with layer-by-layer polymer film including TiO2 nanoparticles using UV light
Ryuji Okimuro (Soka University & Faculty of Engineering, Japan); Michiko Nishiyama and Ai Hosoki (Soka University, Japan); Kazuhiro Watanabe (Soka University Japan, Japan)
We have developed a hetero-core structured fiber optic humidity sensor with a porous immobilized TiO2 nano-particles. Our research group has been proposed the hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor due to moisture absorption of the hygroscopic polymer based on optical-intensity modulation. However, the sensor had difficulty in detecting the humidity change at lower humidity range less than 50 %RH. In this paper, we present that the hetero-core fiber humidity sensor has devised to increase the sensitivity at relatively lower humidity by means of including the TiO2 nano-particles in a porous sensitive film comparing to the conventional hetero-core fiber humidity sensor. On the other hand, a UV light has been known to make the TiO2 nano-particles indicate super-hydrophilic reaction and photo catalytic effect. Therefore, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor can be improved using the sensitive film including the TiO2 nano-particles illuminated by the UV light. We tested the transmitted spectra of UV and visible band light of the proposed hetero-core fiber humidity sensor. As a result, the UV-LED light source could enhance the humidity sensitivity in the proposed hetero-core fiber optic sensor.
pp. 352-356
12:32 Hetero-core structured Fabry-Perot fiber sensor for liquid refractive index and Hydrogen gas detection
Mizuki Hashimoto, Michiko Nishiyama and Ai Hosoki (Soka University, Japan); Kazuhiro Watanabe (Soka University Japan, Japan)
In this paper, we have developed a hetero-core structured fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor. The hetero-core interface is simply made by fusion splicing two fibers with different core diameters. The hetero-core insertion length plays a role as a FP cavity length. The cavity length could be easily tuned by the insertion length of the hetero-core fiber. Additionally, the sensor has smooth-faced reflector on the hetero-core interface due to fabrication process comprised of cleaving and fusion splicing. Firstly, in order to evaluate the characteristic of the hetero-core structured FP sensor, we carried out the refractive index change experiment with water and glycerin solution. As a result, we can experimentally obtain the refractive index sensing ability of the proposed hetero-core FP sensor. Secondly, we carried out the hydrogen detection experiment by the hetero-core fiber FP sensor which has the 5-nm Pd thin film. We also confirmed that the H2 gas detection by the proposed sensor could be achieved based on the amplitude change in the FP fringe.
pp. 357-360
12:37 Adaptive Context-Aware Sensor Array System for Scene Analysis in Multiple Human Monitoring
Qingquan Sun (California State University, USA)
This paper presents a novel context-aware wireless sensor array system for scene analysis in multiple human monitoring. The goal of the research is to achieve real-time scene recognition and human identification through low-cost, low-datathroughput wireless pyroelectric sensor arrays. In the sensing information space, the scenes can be regarded as the combination of a bunch of basis in subspace. Such bases are extracted by using matrix factorization techniques. Geometry-regularized contextual pattern extraction and region of interest (RoI) identification schemes are developed and utilized. Experiment results demonstrate the capabilities of our context-aware sensing system on scene analysis and system adaption. The proposed context-aware wireless sensor system is not limited to pyroelectric sensors, it can be extended to various sensing modalities.
pp. 361-366
12:41 A wireless reference node to provide self-calibration capability to wireless sensors networks
Denis Smorgon and Vito C Fernicola (INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy)
Wireless sensors networks (WSNs) are constantly expanding their application field, from simple two-state measurements (e.g., on/off, proximity detection, etc.) to distributed many-parameter measurements. Commercial WSNs offer a wide range of functions and performance with sensors sometimes achieving accuracy comparable with desktop instrumentation. However, the advantage of using such sensors for in-situ monitoring is often offset by the need of partially dismantling the network at the time of periodic network nodes calibration. As a result, new reference standards suitable for automatic and in-situ calibration of such sensors networks are needed in order to reduce the calibration cost, the inherent inefficiency and the logistic problems of a laboratory calibration, further exploiting the communication capabilities of a WSN. This work discusses the development of a wireless reference node (WRN) for the measuring of environment quantity such as air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH). The module was developed for accurate measurements of additional environment-related quantities whose principle is based on a capacitive sensing mechanism (e.g. pressure, air-flow, moisture, etc...). The WRN performance was investigated in the temperature range from 0 °C to 40 °C and in the relative humidity range from 10 %rh to about 90 %rh for its potential use as a transfer standard for automatic in-situ calibrations. Some of novelties here reported were patented and are now available to upgrade a basic WSN with an automatic in-situ calibration capability. Keywords: Humidity, In-field Calibration, Reference Standard, Temperature, Traceability, Wireless Reference Node, Wireless Sensors Networks
pp. 367-372
12:45 Full-Duplex Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios using Optical Self-Interference Cancellation
Matthew Chang (Princeton University, USA); Yanhua Deng (Bascom Hunter Technologies Inc., USA); Paul Prucnal (Princeton University, USA)
We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical self-interference cancellation system to realize full-duplex spectrum sensing in cognitive radios. The optical system is an analog radio-frequency front-end module, which cancels in-band self-interference, enabling a radio to simultaneously transmit and receive signals. The system achieves 83 dB of narrowband interference cancellation, and 60 dB of cancellation of a 50 MHz frequency-modulated signal. The center frequency of the optical canceler is freely tunable across the radio frequency spectrum, limited only by the bandwidth of the photodetector and the electro-optic modulators to 10 GHz. The system is modulation-format independent and requires only one piece of hardware to operate across a wide radio-frequency bandwidth. By reducing self-interference to acceptably low powers, a cognitive radio can continuously sense its radio-frequency environment to detect the presence of a licensed user or scan for spectrum white spaces even while transmitting simultaneously.
pp. 373-376
12:50 Speed Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery Using Electrostatic Method
Lin Li (Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Xiaoxin Wang, Hongli Hu and Xingyue Yang (Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.R. China)
Rotational speed monitoring is a critical part in the automatic control system of large generators and centrifugal machine. This article designed a rotational speed measurement system using electrostatic sensors and a correlation signal processing method. Two categories were utilized for the speed measurement-two sensors using cross-correlation method and a single sensor using auto-correlation method. Meanwhile, further signal processing methods were adopted to improve the accuracy of measurement results. Experimental tests were carried out on a laboratory-scale test rig under a rotational speed range from 400r/min to 3800r/min. The results show that the linearity of cross-correlation method and auto-correlation under experimental conditions is 1.53% and 0.52% correspondingly. In the same time, the auto-correlation method has a higher accuracy than cross-correlation method with the relative error lower than 1%.
pp. 377-382
12:54 A capacitance sensor for the water content of desiccant wheels
Chen-Kang Huang and Yu-Wei Liu (University of Taiwan, Taiwan)
A capacitance sensor was designed to measure the water content in desiccant wheels. 24 AWG (American wire gauge) single conductor wires were constructed to be the probe. Prototype sensors of two probe lengths inserted into the wheel and two numbers of wires were prepared. Four locations of the desiccant wheel were tested to verify if the measured trend is consistent with the weight variation and the physics sense. After series of tests on two desiccant wheels from different suppliers over the regeneration process, the variation of capacitance values is agreed with that of water content by weight measurement. It is believed that the capacitance is able to be a good indicator of water content, and the current design is economical and suitable to be a continuous online sensor. It will be very helpful to determine the end of dehumidification or regeneration process.
pp. 383-386
12:59 Hydrogen Sensing Performance of an Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) Based Pd/GaN Schottky Diode
Huey-Ing Chen and Wen-Chau Liu (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan)
In this work, an interesting Pd/GaN Schottky diode-type hydrogen sensor, prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, is fabricated and investigated. The studied device shows a high sensing response of 6.67*104 when exposing to a 1% H2/air gas at 100?, and also detect even as low as 50 ppm H2/air gas. Moreover the studied device shows short response time and recovery time as 10 and 82 s, respectively, when exposing to a 1% H2/air gas at 150?. Based on these excellent properties, the studied device gives a promise for high-performance hydrogen sensing applications.
pp. 387-390
13:03 Improving Magnetic Linear Position Measurement by Field Shaping
Michael Ortner (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria)
This paper addresses the problem of magnetic linear position detection, a common method used in modern industries to detect linear displacement. There are two common realizations based on 1D and 2D magnetic field measurement. While the 2D method features a higher level of signal stability, precision and measurement range when compared to the 1D counterpart, the latter is still used for its cost-effectiveness. In this work a method is proposed to improve 1D linear position detection by using compounds of magnets to generate the field. With this technique several of the advantages of 2D systems, like improved linearity and air gap stability can be translated to 1D systems. The idea is presented in the context of achieving maximal cost efficiency, thus focusing on compounds constructed of only a small number of magnets. To find the optimal layout, however, becomes a highly complex optimization problem that is formulated in detail. As a proof of principle it is then shown that already a simplified optimization can lead to an excellent improvement of the signal properties.
pp. 391-396
13:07 Humidity sensor based on Lossy Mode Resonances on an etched single mode fiber
Joaquin Ascorbe and Jesus Corres (Public University of Navarra, Spain); Francisco J Arregui (Universidad Publica de Navarra, Spain); Ignacio R. Matias (Public University of Navarra, Spain)
Here we present a new structure to fabricate optical fiber sensors. This structure consists on an etched single mode optical fiber coated with a thin film of a semiconductor material by means of sputtering. The optical fiber was etched with hydrofluoric acid until it reaches 19 μm of diameter. Then it was glued to a U-holder and coated with the indium oxide nanocoating. The thin film generates a lossy mode resonance and when the relative humidity increases, the wavelength of the resonance shifts. Changes of 25% to 85% have been applied to the device obtaining a wavelength shift of 12 nm.
pp. 397-400
13:12 Implementation of Application by Gaze Interaction on a Tablet Computer for Challenged People
Yasuyuki Shimada (National Institute of Technology & Kumamoto College, Japan); Koki Shibasato (National Institute of Technology, Japan); Hirofumi Ohtsuka (NIT, Kumamoto College, Japan)
The Japanese government conducted measures for persons with disabilities in 2013 and they reported that about 2.2 million of challenged children aged 17 or younger live in Japan. There are many kinds of computers and tablet produced in Japan, however, quite small number of products are designed for the challenged children. Those children cannot communicate with others because of severe physical disabilities and they are wholeheartedly keen to become a member of a society and crave a device to communicate with other people. In this paper, application by gaze interaction on a tablet computer was proposed and examined the performance and effectiveness of this application through trial classes in special-needs school. Results of experiment through trial classes suggested that the proposed application gained high appreciation from teachers of special-need school.
pp. 401-405
13:16 Performance Enhancement of Electronic Sensor through Mask-less Lithography
Anindya Nag (Massey University, New Zealand); Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand); Jürgen Kosel (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia); Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
The escalating applications of miniaturized sensors have led the microelectronics industry to stay abreast with the precise micro-fabrication technologies. The following article describes a new technique for the fabrication of miniaturized interdigitated capacitive sensors that own highly sensitive and real-time detections capabilities. In standard lithographic procedure, the sensors are fabricated applying different photoresist materials that give rise to the variable characteristic profile of the fabricated product. Single crystal p-doped Silicon wafer was used as a substrate material due to its advantageous properties over Germanium. Heidelberg system was used for the maskless lithographic patterning of the new interdigital sensors on a silicon substrate. The process was carried out in a clean room in the absence of ultraviolet light at a fixed temperature. The fabricated sensors were used for inflammable gas sensing application. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was applied to read the resistive and capacitive impedance measured by the sensor. The results proclaimed that the fabricated sensors own better performance in LPG detection as compared to its commercial counterparts.
pp. 406-411
13:21 Printed Electronics: Present and Future Opportunities
Anindya Nag (Massey University, New Zealand); Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand); Arun Babu and Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
The world had faced a leap in the field of science and technology to a great extent in the last five decades. The fabrication of materials is done in a more miniaturized way for merging the different aspects of the working field in a single device. The paper presents a review of different technologies that had been used electronically for the last two decades for the production of substances that are used in the field of electronics, electrical and biochemistry. The review includes the development of nanoparticles, biosensors and other small scaled devices for practical applications like detection of bacteria and other pathogens. The paper also describes the process of ink-jet printing that had been used since its introduction and gives a few methods for making stable conductive compounds like silver, copper in room temperature.
pp. 412-421
13:25 Mobile Robust Localization based on KF using Inertial Sensor and Chirp-Spread-Spectrum Ranging
Xingchuan Liu (The 28th Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, P.R. China)
Realizing a reliable and robust localization based on mobile nodes plays a critical role in increasing pervasive sensing environments and location-based services (LBS). Although the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in outdoor environments, indoor robust positioning is still a challenging problem because of the unavailability of GPS and complex indoor environments where non-line-of-sight (NLOS) occurs due to reflection and diffraction. To solve the problem, an accurate and robust integration localization scheme based on Kalman filter is proposed in this paper. In the scheme, we merge the two heterogeneous but complementary positioning technologies on the mobile node equipped with both inertial sensors and the chirp-spread-spectrum ranging hardware. In order to NLOS identification and decrease NLOS error, a novel sight-state estimation method based on the Markov model is proposed. Besides, experiments have been carried out in real indoor NLOS environment to evaluate performance of proposed system. Experimental results indicate a remarkable performance improvement by using the proposed integrated system.
pp. 422-427
13:29 Influence of Rail Wear on Output Voltage of Eddy-Current Rail Displacement Sensor
Yoshifumi Shimojima, Yinggang Bu and Tsutomu Mizuno (Shinshu University, Japan); Takafumi Asahi, Makoto Ito and Shigemi Enoki (SHINKAWA Sensor Technology, Inc., Japan)
This paper describes the structure and output voltage characteristics of a rail displacement sensor comprising triangular coils . The calculation was demonstrated under a few assumptions. The maximum output voltage error between the measured and the calculated values was 2.4%. The influence of rail wear on output voltage leads to a displacement error of 12 mm.
pp. 428-433
13:34 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel Oxide-Based EGFET pH Sensors
Huey-Ing Chen and Wen-Chau Liu (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan)
NiO films based extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensors were fabricated and investigated in this work. Experimentally, nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were first prepared via precipitation method. Subsequently, the NiO film was deposited on the FTO glass substrate by spin-coating. Two precipitants, NaOH and NH4OH solutions, were used in the precipitation of NiO. The influences of preparation conditions including precipitant, coating number, and calcination temperature on the properties of NiO films and pH sensing performances of devices were investigated. From experimental results, it was found that sensing performances of NaOH-derived NiO devices are superior to the NH4OH-derived ones, owing to their small grain size and densely packed NiO film. It also revealed that, a highest sensitivity of 53.40 mV/pH was achieved in the pH range from 2 to 12 with a good linearity of 0.9989, which was fabricated with a precipitant of NaOH solution, a coating number of 10, and a calcination temperature of 400oC. Moreover, the device showed a negligible hysteresis and drift effects. In addition, the selectivity of the device toward hydrogen ions is fairly good with respect to sodium and potassium ions.
pp. 434-437
13:38 Surface acoustic wave ultraviolet sensors based on ZnO nanorods
Yung-Yu Chen and Cheng-Hsiu Ho (Tatung University, Taiwan); Tsung-Tsong Wu (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
The study aims at developing a ultraviolet (UV) sensor module which could work at room temperature by combining a two-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator and ZnO nanorods. A SAW resonator based on 128° YX-LiNbO3 substrate is fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system process. The operating frequency is designed to be 145 MHz. The ZnO nanorods are fabricated on the delay line region of the SAW resonator by aqueous method, and the properties of the ZnO nanorods are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The external amplifier is designed by simulation software, and a dual delay line configuration is constructed for reducing environmental fluctuations. Finally, the UV sensor module is tested under UV light of different wavelengths (380nm and 300nm) with various power densities. Results show that the frequency shifts are ascendant followed by the increasing power densities. The sensitivities of different wavelengths (380 nm and 300 nm) are 19 and 393 Hz*cm2/μW respectively. It's obvious that the UV sensor module is more sensitive to 300 nm than 380 nm. The experiments proved that the UV sensor module has good sensitivity, stability, repeatability, and linear relation on sensing UV light at room temperature.
pp. 438-443
13:43 Routing Protocols for Small Scale WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Noman Shabbir (GC University Lahore, Pakistan); Roheel Nawaz (GC University Lahore & Pakistan Engineering Council, Ericsson Pk, Pakistan); Muhammad Naveed Iqbal (GC University Lahore, Pakistan); Junaid Zafar (GCU Lahore, Pakistan)
This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The analysis is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in a small scale Wireless Local Area (WLAN) based Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load while AODV gives best throughput and in terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient.
pp. 444-447
13:47 Microbial fuel cell as a biosensor to monitor various toxic metal substances in water
Jae Sun Lee, Dae Seop Kim, Hyeon Jin Jeon, Byeong Sun Park, Hee Jin Yang and Moon Sik Hyun (KORBI Co., Ltd., Korea); Mia Kim (KORBI Co. Ltd., Korea)
Toxicities of twelve kinds of metals were evaluated by using a microbial fuel cell as a monitoring sensor. Tested metals were barium(Ba), beryllium(Be), cobalt(Co), copper(Cu), iron(Fe), manganese(Mn), mercury(Hg), lead(Pb), selenium(Se), thallium(Tl), vanadium(V), and zinc(Zn). Most of the tested metals are not allowed to be present above a certain concentration in drinking water system in South Korea. To evaluate the toxicities of the metals in water, HATOX-2000, a bio-monitoring system, was utilized. Minimum concentration of response of each metal and toxicity values in certain concentration range were determined through the test. The minimum concentrations of response were less than 1.0 mg/L for all the tested metals. The lowest value was observed as 0.1 mg/L for thallium. HATOX-2000 was able to detect the tested metal substances in water system with high sensitivity.
pp. 448-451
13:51 Leaf Wetness Sensors- A Comparative Analysis
Akbar Ghobakhlou (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
Leaf wetness duration (LWD) is an important variable in plant disease prediction which can promote significant condition for the germination of fungal pathogen spores on leaf surfaces. There are different types of leaf wetness sensors (LWS) to measure LWD with no broadly accepted measurement standard. This paper performs a comparative analysis of various LWS that are commonly used in commercial stations. The sensors used in the experiment have different size, shape, and working principles. Visual observation was done for initial test and sensor response time test was performed to evaluate sensors' performance. Using dielectric constant to measure leaf wetness shown to be more effective than resistance-based sensors.
pp. 452-456
13:56 Development of Wavelength Measurement System of Multiplex Fiber Bragg Gratings using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry
Tatsuya Yamaguchi and Masato Arai (Nihon University, Japan); Yukitaka Shinoda (Nihon University & College of Science and Technology, Japan)
The authors propose the use of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) in the multiplexing of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) of differing wavelengths that are installed equidistantly, and are developing a system for measuring reflected wavelength in real-time. We have demonstrated that how the wavelength sweep width of a tunable laser was expanded to 30nm and multiplexing of FBGs of five different Bragg wavelengths and multi-pointing of FBGs of the same Bragg wavelength was done. This paper describes that this measurement system is able to measure the reflected wavelengths of each of 26 multiplexed and multi-pointed FBGs, every two seconds in real-time.
pp. 457-461
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14:00 - 15:30 S8: Invited Talk II

Chair: Dr. Krishanthi Jayasundera, Massey University, New ZealandChair: Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
2:00 pm to 2:30 pm Energy harvesting devices - a basis of energy supply of sensors and sensor systems
Prof. Dr. Norbert Schwesinger
Associate Professorship of Micro-Mechatronical Systems
Technische Universität München
2:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Prof. Octavian Postalache
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15:20 - 17:08 S9A: Sensors for Novel Applications II Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Thomas Newe (University of Limerick, Ireland)
15:20 Comparison of two variants of a novel setup for real time high resolution UV-LED absorption Spectroscopy
Eric Ebert (University Rostock & Universität Rostock, Germany); Marian Rabe (University Rostock, Germany); Hendrik Krüger, Nils Damaschke and Hartmut Ewald (University of Rostock, Germany)
Depicted is the Development of an ultrasensitive and highly specific sensory platform. Real time, high resolution measurements of gas concentrations are a task in many applications like exhaust monitoring, smoke detectors and medical applications. Therefore were two setup approaches for UV-LED based, spectroscopic gas concentration measurements investigated. By the advances in the fabrication of ultraviolet LEDs (UV-LEDs) during the past years became spectroscopic applications possible. Advantages of the UV-LED spectroscopic approach are the compact form factor, the long lifetime of the light source and small application efforts. Only a few, robust, reasonable priced components enable high volume applications. Two different hardware setups were evaluated to design the measurement system. One of the systems utilizes two concave mirrors, two photo detector diodes and a 405nm LED mounted in a case. A standard low power microcontroller ARM Cortex M0 was applied as signal processor. The second investigated system in the comparison utilizes also the same electro optical components but applies instead of the concave mirrors polished aluminium 'snail'-shaped device to increase the optical path length trough the gas. Nitrogen-dioxide (NO2) concentrations of 200 ppm are measured with a resolution of ~13% counts with the dual concave mirror setup. The aluminium 'snail' setup could not reach this sensitivity. Other gases could be measured by exchange the applied 405 nm LED with a different wave length LED.
pp. 462-465
15:38 Novel Application of Microphone Array Sensor for Children's Language Learning Support -- Intelligent Interactive Design Using Voice Separation and Recognition System --
T. Nakadai and Motohiko Hano (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Ryohei Egusa (J S P S Research Fellow/ Kobe University, Japan); Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan); Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan); Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan); Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan); Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan)
Development of a robust and precise voice interface could accelerate the realization of a learning support system that utilizes voice. In our research, this objective is called Intelligent Interactive Design of learning support. In order to realize Intelligent Interactive Design, we propose a "voice separation and recognition system" that aims at clear voice separation for robust voice recognition by voice recognition systems. The results of experiments conducted indicate that our Intelligent Interactive Design has a correct voice recognition rate above 70%. The results are highly satisfactory and indicate that Intelligent Interactive Design can be realized via our proposed system in the near future.
pp. 466-469
15:56 Develop an Attention Recognition Mechanism on E-Book Reading System by Brainwave and Visual
Pei-Yu Cheng, Yen-Ning Su, Yu-Cheng Chien, Chia-Hung Lai, Guan-Yu Chen, I-Wei Lu and Yueh-Min Huang (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan)
Student's reading attention is highly related to their reading ability and learning performance. Traditionally, it is a difficult procedure that when teachers want to observe the reading attention state of each students. In recent years, sensing technology-based applications and learning methods emerge in the increasingly mature environment. Most studies have shown the effectiveness of sensor-assisted learning system in helping teachers observe students' learning state. In order to help teachers effectively observe students' learning attention, this study developed Attention Recognition Mechanism (ARM) on e-book reading system by brainwave and visual. To derive more insights from the participants of the ARM on e-book system, five teachers were enrolled in the interview study. They commented that using attention recognition mechanism on e-book reading system can help teachers monitor the student's reading attention state and provide suitable feedback.
pp. 470-474
16:14 Novel Application of a Range Image Sensor to Eye Gaze Estimation by Using the Relationship between Face and Eye Directions
Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai and Ryuichi Yoshida (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Takeki Ogitsu (Tokyo University of Science & Faculty of Science and Technology, Japan); Hiroshi Takemura (Noda Tus, Japan); Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Ryohei Egusa, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan); Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan); Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan); Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan)
In this study, we estimate gaze direction using the relationship between the face and eyes. The face and eyes are divided laterally and in lengthwise direction. We set up an object laterally and in lengthwise direction and measured the face angle using a Kinect sensor, which is range image sensor, when gazing at an object. The angle of the eyes is fixed at the angle of the object and grasp of the relationship between face and eyes. We calculate the gaze direction using the relation between the face and eyes. Then, the results of present experiment, if based on relationship between face and eyes, has been shown to be effective though the results of the experiment.
pp. 475-478
16:32 UVC induced toxicity, biophysical, and biomechanics of different cells treated with protective substance
Devasier Bennet (Gachon University, Korea); Dae Ryook Yang (Korea University, Korea); Jeongho An (SungKyunKwan University, Korea); Sanghyo Kim (Gachon University, Korea)
This research work aimed at determining the in-vitro ultraviolet radiation (UVC) effects in different types of skin cells. Pigments presented in these cells play a crucial role in various cellular processes. So, we describes an unprecedented, simple and real-time in vitro analytical tool to continuously measure the UVC effects in an in vitro model to determine mechanisms underlying cell degeneration and antagonist agents. This study reported the analytical application of an electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) platform for examining the biophysical effects of UVC. We used human keratinocyte, melanocyte, and fibroblast cell lines to determine the normal, pathological, and protective roles of UVC. In addition, we examined real-time morphological, biophysical, and biomechanical changes associated with cell degeneration induced by UVC. Information on UVR-induced changes in cytoskeleton ultrastructure, cellular integrity, inflammation, microtubule damage, membrane damage, rupture, and death was characterized by examining the loss or increase in biophysical and biomechanical properties of these cells. All cells exposed to UVC showed a significant increase in surface roughness and stiffness in a time-dependent manner. UVC-induced toxicity in different pigmented skin cells was compared with that in skin cells pretreated with melanin to analyze the shielding efficiency of these agents. Melanin showed a significant shielding effect. The biophysical and biomechanical information obtained in this study provides better understanding cell degeneration process, and would be of broad interest in the field of therapeutics for developing new interventions strategies.
pp. 479-484
16:50 Development of Dry Textile Electrodes for Electromiography:A comparison between knitted structures and conductive yarns
André Paiva (University of Minho, Portugal); Helder Carvalho and Andre Catarino (Universidade de Minho, Portugal); Octavian Adrian Postolache (Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisboa/IT & Instituto Universitario de Lisboa, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal)
The paper presents a practical approach concerning the design, implementation and testing of dry textile electrodes for surface electromyography purposes. Several knitted structures were designed and knitted with conductive yarns, in order to compare the influence of the fabric structure in the electrode performance. The effect of the type of conductive yarn was also studied by comparing three different yarns. It was found that the textile electrodes perform well for surface EMG (sEMG) acquisition, with a clear depiction of the muscle activity produced. There are significant differences between the structures tested and there is also some influence from the yarn used. The comfort study based on remote temperature monitoring of wearable components was carried out.
pp. 485-489
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S9B: Smart Phone, WSN and SSN Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Yau Hee Kho (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan)
15:20 Smartphone Based Sensing Enables Automated Vehicle Prognosis
Arijit Chowdhury (Indian Institute of Science, India); Tapas Chakravarty (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, India); Tanushree Banerjee and P. Balamuralidhar (Tata Consultancy Services, India)
This paper presents a smartphone based application whereby a vehicle owner can obtain a reasonable prediction of the vehicle's potential failure time. Through a hybrid model-based and data-driven approach, one can obtain a predictive maintenance suggestion; given the current state of degradation. The smartphone is used both for sensing and computation. The proposed minimal-sensing approach is only meant to indicate Level-1 failure - the first step in identifying the existence of fault. Here, one assumes that the vehicle's vibration continues to increase over time thus indicating progressive degradation in its ability to absorb shock. The vertical vibration is measured using accelerometer and an appropriate measure is deduced for each completed trip. Furthermore, a trend line is obtained that continues to compute time-to-failure with respect to a pre-determined breakdown point. In addition, the effects of potentially rough driving style is also qualitatively accounted for. The results of its deployment in an office bus is presented. Detailed analysis on the data captured for passenger cars is in progress.
pp. 490-493
15:38 Machine Learning Based Acoustic Sensing for Indoor Room Localisation Using Mobile Phones
Lincoln Phillips and Christopher Berry Porter (The University of Queensland, Australia); Navinda Kottege (CSIRO, Australia); Matthew J.A. D'Souza (The University of Queensland, Australia); Montse Ros (University of Wollongong, Australia)
We present a novel indoor localisation system that used acoustic sensing. We developed the Acoustic Landmark Locator to determine a person's current room location, within a building. Indoor environments tend to have distinct acoustic properties due to physical structure. Hence rooms in a building can have distinctive acoustic signatures. We found that these acoustic signatures can determine the position of a person. We attempted to identify location based on acoustic sensing of the surrounding indoor environment. We developed a mobile phone application that determined a person's location by measuring the acoustic levels of the surrounding environment. We used a machine learning artificial neural network based algorithm to classify the location of the person, within proximity to a landmark or room. We tested the Acoustic Landmark Locator in an indoor environment. Our tests show that the Acoustic Landmark Locator mobile phone app was able to successfully determine the location of the person carrying the mobile phone, in all test areas. It was also found that background noise caused by the presence of people does distort the landmark acoustic profiles but the artificial neural network based classifier was able to reliably determine the person's room location. Further work will involve investigating how other machine learning approaches can be used to better improve position accuracy.
pp. 494-498
15:56 Early Detection of Neurological Disease Using a Smartphone: A Case Study
Kun-chan Lan (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan)
Diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD) is often difficult, especially in its early stages. It has been estimated that nearly 40% of people with the disease may not be diagnosed. Traditionally, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease often requires a doctor to observe the patient over time to recognize signs of rigidity. In this work, we propose a PDR-based method to continuously monitor and record the patient's gait characteristics using a smart-phone. Our tool could be useful in providing an early warning to the PD patient to seek medical assistance and help the doctor diagnose the disease earlier.
pp. 499-505
16:14 Organization and Management of Semantic Sensor Information using SSN Ontology: an Energy Meter use case
Sounak Dey (TCS, India); Dibyanshu Jaiswal (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd., India); Ranjan Dasgupta (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, India); Arijit Mukherjee (Tata Consultancy Services, India)
In cyber-physical systems (CPS), sensors play a major role in observing and measuring physical world parameters. Capturing sensor semantics aids in search and discovery of the most suitable sensor for detecting specific physical events. This paper describes organization of general sensor information and its management and particularly elaborate the case for energy sensor using Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology. Use of such sensor knowledge representation satisfies spatio-temporal and thematic queries, and at the same time, provides semantic enabled value added services for various smart and green energy aware Internet-of-things (IoT) applications.
pp. 506-511
16:32 A Novel Embedded System-Based Backbone Communication Network for Smart Grid
Cheng-Yue Liu and Xiang-Yao Zheng (National Taiwan University, Taiwan); Chien-Hao Wang (National Taiwan Uniersity, Taiwan); Chih-Hao Syue, Ching-Ya Tseng, Yeun-Chung Lee and Joe-Air Jiang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan); Fang-Cheng Chou (Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan)
A smart grid is a modernized power grid. Many novel technologies have been used to smart grids. One of the technologies is the wireless sensor network. In this study, a novel backbone communication network is proposed, which combines two different wireless technologies (the ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol), to form a communication network between the transmission towers in a power grid. The gateway in the network consists of an embedded system and an AP with long-range communication capability. The embedded system is used as a computing platform to deal with sensor readings transmitted through the ZigBee protocol and routing data transmitted between towers via long-range Wi-Fi. Finally, the gateways relay the readings to a back-end server in a monitoring center (e.g. substation, ADCC, and CDCC) through the backbone communication network. Furthermore, to manage all the gateways, a routing algorithm for the backbone communication network is designed to ensure the reliability of data transmission in this study. Simulation is done to test the effectiveness and reliability of the routing algorithm.
pp. 512-519
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S9C: Microwave and Radar Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
15:20 A Microwave Drip-Infusion Monitoring System Based on CW Radar
Helen Theissen and David-Benjamin Grys (Ruhr University Bochum, Germany); Thomas Musch (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany)
This paper presents a novel drip-infusion monitoring system for drip-detection suitable for gravity-flow intravenous infusion sets. In contrast to previously reported work, this concept uses the CW radar principle in the microwave domain to increase reliability and cost-effectiveness. The non-invasive sensor, which is directly attached to the drip chamber of the infusion set, consists of a microstrip antenna and emits a single-frequency signal in the X-band range. The falling drops in the drip chamber reflect a part of the radiation which is then received by the same antenna. The received signal power is detected by a reflectometer circuit which separates the received from the transmitted signal and eventually provides a rectified voltage. Simulations and measurements performed on a manufactured prototype validate the presented concept.
pp. 520-524
15:38 Small Scatter Elements for Crack Detection
Ian G Platt (Lincoln Agritech Ltd, New Zealand); Ian M Woodhead (Lincoln, New Zealand); Michael Hagedorn (LVL, New Zealand)
This paper looks at the feasibility of using short elements radar scatters elements within concrete as a marker to cracking. It is shown that the dynamic range of power returns due to broken scatterers (indicating cracks) is small, but nevertheless consistent putting such techniques near the limits of feasibility when taken in a statistical context.
pp. 525-528
15:56 A Continuous Wave Radar Technique for Structural Health Monitoring
Alexander Amies, Christopher Pretty, Geoffrey Rodgers and Geoff Chase (University of Canterbury, New Zealand)
Radar is a technique commonly used to determine the instantaneous distance between moving objects. This paper proposes the application of a frequency-modulated continuous wave technique for the purpose of drift sensing in a structural health monitoring context. This context requires the measurement of interstorey drift ratios to determine the damage to a structure. Any structural health monitoring system must be able to detect interstorey displacement accurately enough to ensure that any potentially damaging events are detected. The primary motivation for the development of this technique is to negate the limitations of current drift sensing methods (such as accelerometers and line-scan cameras). The proposed system is simulated, and it is found that with sufficiently large frequency sweep bandwidth, errors in displacement tracking can be as low as 0.26% of the actual displacement, with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.1%. These results justify the further development of a hardware prototype.
pp. 529-534
16:14 Real-Time Detection of Residual Antibiotics Concentration with Microwave Cavity and Planar EM Sensors
Olga Korostynska, Alex Mason and Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
To prevent the improper use of antibiotics in aquaculture and to assist the food safety law enforcement, this paper reports on assessing the feasibility of a bespoke electromagnetic (EM) wave sensing method for real-time in situ monitoring of residual antibiotic concentrations in water samples. For the first time the antibiotics solutions were tested in microwave cavity and in contact with planar sensor with interdigitated electrode (IDE) pattern on Rogers® substrate. Transmitted and reflected power signals were analysed in GHz frequency range and these were dependent on both: the type of antibiotic present in water and on its concentration.
pp. 535-538
16:32 Online non-destructive monitoring of meat drying using microwave spectroscopy
Alex Mason and Magomed Muradov (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
The aim of this investigation is to monitor the meat drying process and analyze the change in electromagnetic (EM) signature from a bespoke sensor during the process. The sensor has been modelled using High Frequency Structure Simulation Software (HFSS) and then constructed and tested. Experimental work was conducted, involving measurement of meat weight and EM signature (namely the reflected signal in the 1-6GHz frequency range) over a period of one week (it takes approx. 1 week to lose 40% of weight and then the measuring is stopped as the general weight loss of dry-cured meat is 30-35 % in the final product), with measurements recorded once per hour. The change in EM signature and weight loss has been analyzed and correlations drawn from the resultant data. The results demonstrate a strong relationship between the reflection coefficient and weight loss of the meat sample, and it is proposed that this could be used as the basis for future industrial application for measuring the quality of meat products during drying processes, such as those used in curing.
pp. 539-544
16:50 Time Domain Reflectometer for Measuring Liquid Waste Levels in a Septic System
Michael J. Haji-Sheikh, Shreya Mamidi, Martin Kocanda, Donald Zinger and Mansour Tahernezhadi (Northern Illinois University, USA)
A Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) level measurement device capable of generating and receiving electromagnetic waves for the measurement of waste water is presented. The primary objective is to measure the height of waste water in a tank and design an efficient measuring device. The TDR is based on the reflection mechanism, in which the time delay between the transmitted and reflected signals helps to determine the distance from the source to the surface of water, which is later used to calculate the height of water in the tank. The TDR is built using a 74AC14 IC, which is capable of producing pulse signals with very low rising and falling times that provide greater accuracy. Thus, the generated pulse signals are transmitted into the probe inserted in a tank. The total time taken by the probe to travel the path to and from is found out, which in return helps in calculating the height of the liquid in the tank. The functioning of the proposed TDR circuit and the bi-axial probe is also tested in the laboratory.
pp. 545-550
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S9D: Healthcare Applications I Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Rajinikumar Ramalingam (Institute of Technical Physics & Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Campus North, Germany)
15:20 Development of dental endoscope for root-canal observation
Masataka Fujimoto (Kyushu Dental University, Japan)
With the development of dental instruments such as dental microscopes and techniques like cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the precision of dental treatment has greatly improved. However, the observation of fractures near the apex collateral of root canals using these instruments remains difficult. In this study, we developed two types of probes that employ external and internal irradiation, respectively. The external-irradiation probe comprises an image fiber and a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, each with a diameter of 500 μm. The internal-irradiation probe comprises an image fiber 300 μm in diameter; a GRIN lens 250 μm in diameter; and five optical fibers for illumination, each 65 μm in diameter. Both probes observed lines and spaces 10 to 100 μm in width on a sample when using a light source from the outside. The visibility of the obtained images increased with the width of the lines and spaces. The illumination of the observation area with the optical fibers inside of the probe was difficult because of a lack of light. In this study, we obtained high-resolution pictures of a root canal. In the future, we will re-design the lens to determine a suitable offset for the optical fiber.
pp. 551-556
15:38 The development and evaluation of an arm usage coach for Stroke survivors
Bart Klaassen, Peter Bartels, Bert-Jan van Beijnum and Hermie Hermens (University of Twente, The Netherlands)
Physicians currently have no objective information about the intensity and quality of a Stroke patient's daily-life activities after returning home from the rehabilitation hospital. Therefore there is a need to unobtrusively monitor patients performing daily life tasks at home. Within the INTERACTION project, a new inertial based sensor suit was developed, which is able to measure Stroke patients at home. This research extend the INTERACTION project by developing a Arm Usage Coach (AUC), which stimulates the patients affected arm to be used more often at home. The results of a user-evaluation showed high scores in usability, but some design and wear ability problems were found. A technical offline evaluation of Stroke patient data showed how different decision criteria parameters, for applying feedback to the patient, resulted in different outcomes of feedback given. Based on both evaluation results, a new prototype is in development, which will be evaluated by Stroke patients in clinic.
pp. 557-562
15:56 Glycoprofiling:a key to early prostate cancer diagnostics
Stefan Belicky and Jan Tkac (Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia)
Prostate cancer rates among the most common diagnosed cancer in men in the European Union and is the first in incidence and third in mortality among all cancer diseases. As with all types of cancer, the positive outcome of treatment depends on early diagnostics and treatment initiation. Currently, blood serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level test is being widely used for prostate cancer detection, however, PSA level elevation may be also caused by other reasons than prostate cancer (e.g. benign prostate hyperplasia or prostatitis. The typically used cut-off for PSA is 4 ng/ml, however, results from 4 to 10 ng/ml are considered a diagnostic grey zone and thus require further examination. To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment, a need for new ways of prostate cancer diagnostics arose. As perturbation in protein glycosylation is a typical sign of tumorigenesis and since PSA is a glycoprotein, monitoring of glycosylation changes in its glycan structure can provide a solution for better detection of the prostate cancer. Proposed biosensor is able to recognize these changes caused by malignant processes in their early stage and thus increase the chance of successful treatment.
pp. 563-567
16:14 Laparoscopic Optical Sensing of Gastroepiploic Artery Using Near-infrared Light Stereo Method
Eiji Nakamachi and Yusuke Morita (Doshisha University, Japan); Hidetoshi Sakamoto (Kumamoto University, Japan)
SUMMARY: We developed an accurate 3D blood vessel search system for the laparoscopic surgery. We use the near-infrared light, two CMOSs, and an image processing technique, "Unsharp-mask process," along with a stereo method. The detected artery position showed a good agreement with one of pig's gastroepiploic artery specimen, thereby confirming the utility and accuracy of our system. INTRODUCION: In recent years, the laparoscopic surgery has been increasingly used for stomach cancer treatment, gallbladder extraction, and uterine myoma resection because it is a minimally invasive technique. During laparoscopy surgery, the surgeon makes an incision measuring 5-10 mm in diameter in the abdomen, inserts a surgical tool and a camera through it, and performs the operation using the obtained image information. A major drawback of laparoscopic surgery is that it requires extremely good surgical technique to detect a lesioned area and quickly decide how to treat it while watching a 2D image. Because of poor imaging, adverse events such as cutting of the arteries in the abdominal cavity often occur. These errors cause serious bleeding and are associated with a risk of death. Medical Doctor suggests that the error of blood vessel position should be less than 10-20% of blood vessel diameter. The blood vessel search system (BVS) is required to accurately determine the real-time positions of arteries during surgery. In the previous study, we developed a novel NIR reflection light irradiation BVS system, in which two cameras and an NIR light source are set at the bottom edge of the laparoscopic tube [1]. We had two main objectives in this study: (1) The visualization and highlighting of the pig's gastroepiploic artery in the skin of greater omentum including the fat layer using NIR light image processing of a newly developed BVS system. (2) Development of an accuracy estimation technique for detecting the 3D artery position using the stereo method, and the validation of our BVS system to detect a pig's gastroepiploic artery. MATERIAL AND METHODS We adopted the stereo method to detect the position of the gastroepiploic artery. Accordingly, we used NIR light to determine the distance between the center of the artery's circular cross section and the camera. For this purpose, two photos of the artery captured using two cameras set at certain distances from the artery. We calculated the azimuth distance between the center of the artery and the line of the two camera lenses by using the data from two CMOS digital image sensors. This stereo method can allow for the miniaturization of the device and quick measurements. The greater omentum shows absorption and scattering characteristics and the blood vessel, absorption alone. It is possible to highlight blood vessels in the CMOS image sensor by using NIR light. NIR light of 600-1000 nm wavelength is known to be an optical window that shows high transmission in bio-tissue. The absorption coefficient of hemoglobin in the blood vessels and the scattering, absorption, and anisotropy coefficients of the greater omentum all depend on the wavelength. Therefore, the contrast of the blood vessel image also depends on the wavelength. Furthermore, for accurate blood vessel position measurement, an image with high contrast for the blood vessel is required. Therefore, we compared the images of the blood vessels captured using NIR-LEDs of wavelengths, 600-1000 nm and selected an optimal wavelength by evaluating the blood vessel images. NIR-LED lights (KED871M51A; Kyosemi Corp.) of four wavelengths - 765, 850, 870, and 940 nm - were selected for the images of phantoms, and an appropriate wavelength was determined using the reduction rate as the objective function. We found a maximum reduction rate of 22.7% for an NIR wavelength of 870 nm, which was adopted for our laparoscopic camera system. We validated the newly developed laparoscopic camera system by using the pig's gastroepiploic artery and the greater omentum. The stomach and artery of the pig have similar sizes and physiological functions as those of humans. We investigated the luminance distributions of three cases - visible light, NIR light, and image-processed NIR light - and found that it was difficult to detect the border of the artery in the visible light image and that the blood vessel position detection failed using the luminance decrease rate. On the other hand, the NIR light image allowed for the successful detection of the border of the blood vessel, and the luminance decrease rate was 11.7%. Further, the image-processed result showed that the luminance decrease rate was 44.5%, which represents a 32.8% improvement from the original NIR light image. The validity of the artery position detection in the greater omentum by using the luminance distribution of the processed image was examined through these experimental observation and analyses. Next, we examined the results of the pig's gastroepiploic artery position measurement to evaluate the accuracy of our laparoscopic camera system. We set the distance between the blood vessel and the camera as 34.90 mm. We evaluated the distances and finally determined the error as 0.12 mm, and this value was within the target error range. Accordingly, we confirmed the applicability of our laparoscopic camera system to 3D blood vessel position detection when the blood vessel exists inside the bio-tissue. CONCLUSIONS We developed and validated a new optical sensing system to detect the position of a pig's gastroepiploic artery. Our study revealed the following important findings: (1) NIR light with a wavelength of 870 nm was selected to provide the clearest images. Unsharp-mask processing and error estimation and correction techniques allowed for the accurate detection of blood vessels embedded in the fat layer tissue. (2) We measured the pig's gastroepiploic artery, whose position in the greater omentum was 34.90 mm. An error of 0.12 mm was found, and this value was within the allowable limit. Consequently, we confirmed the validity of our 3D blood vessel position detection system for a blood vessel located inside the bio-tissue. REFERENCE [1] E. Nakamachi, Development of Automatic Operated Blood Sampling System for Portable Type Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose, Conf Proc IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 335-338, 2010.
pp. 568-571
16:32 Elderly Infrared Body Temperature Telemonitoring System with XBee Wireless Protocol
Thy Ling (UCTS, Malaysia); Lim Jin Wong (Kolej Laila Taib, Malaysia)
Real time non-contact elderly infrared body temperature telemonitoring system with XBee wireless protocol is an emerging technology in both electronics and computer world. It plays the important role in elderly health care services. Non-contact elderly infrared body temperature telemonitoring system with XBee wireless protocol help in monitoring body temperature of the elderly and base on the elderly healthcare's history provide the necessary treatment. Doctor or nurse can check the complete details of the elderly's profile from remote location and can recommend a suitable medication. The main purpose of this technology is to provide efficient healthcare facility remotely and to monitor the elderly in their natural environment which the non-contact infrared thermometer devices are attached at their home. Real time non-contact elderly infrared body temperature telemonitoring system with XBee wireless protocol can also greatly assist in disease management to maximize health, prevent complications, and conserve healthcare resources. With the aid of assistive technologies, elderly are allowing to live independently and to enjoy a better quality of life. It can also provide opportunities for extending healthcare resources to more people who current have little or no access to care. This paper proposes a real time non-contact elderly infrared body temperature telemonitoring system with XBee wireless protocol which links to computer and records the reading automatically.
pp. 572-578
16:50 Simulation and Evaluation of ZigBee based Smart Home using Qualnet Simulator
Hemant Ghayvat (Massey University, New Zealand); Jie Liu (Massey University, P.R. China); Arun Babu, Md Eshrat E Alahi, Xiang Gui and Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
This research aims to represent the ZigBee mesh routing and the performance under simulation environment for smart home. In the realistic smart home, researcher does not get some of the analysis and results. Hence, we designed and developed ZigBee best virtual smart home environment on Qualnet simulator. Finally, we suggest mixed-mode simulation methodology that integrates the smart home environment with realistic wireless sensor network tested hardware to get optimized system performance.
pp. 579-585
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Thursday, December 10

09:00 - 10:30 S10A: Magnetic Sensors I Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Michael J. Haji-Sheikh (Northern Illinois University, USA)
09:00 High sensitive magnetic sensor with amorphous wire
Dongfeng He and Mitsuharu Shiwa (National Institute for Material Science, Japan)
Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. To improve the linearity of the field response, a feedback method was used. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise of the sensor was about 30 pT per root Hz above 30 Hz. An eddy current testing (ECT) system using the GMI sensor was developed and a defect in a 2 mm thick aluminum plate was successfully detected.
pp. 586-588
09:18 Concept of magnetic sonification device
K. Tashiro and Hiroyuki Wakiwaka (Shinshu University, Japan)
The concept of magnetic sonification device is presented. Although magnetic fields could be used for a reusable energy source, it could not be noticed by human's sense. In order to notice the existence of magnetic field as a power source, this paper presents a magnetic sonification device in low cost. This device consists of a pickup coil and conventional FM transmitter. The possibility of this operation without any battery is also considered.
pp. 589-592
09:36 A pico-Tesla magnetic sensor with a PZT bimorph and permanent magnet proof mass
Gopalan Srinivasan, Gollapudi Sreenivasulu, Peng Qu and Hongwei Qu (Oakland University, USA); Vladimir Petrov (Novgorod State University, Russia)
Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites have attracted interests in recent years for use as ac magnetic field sensors [1,2]. The sensing is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain. An applied ac magnetic field H produces a magnetostrictive strain in the ferromagnetic layer, leading to a voltage response V in the ferroelectric layer of thickness t. The ME voltage coefficient (MEVC) = V/(t H) and the sensitivity S are directly proportional to the product of the piezomagnetic and piezoelectric coefficients. Such ferroelectric-ferromagnetic composites, however, require a bias magnetic field in order to enhance the piezomagnetic coupling coefficient in the composite to achieve pico-Tesla sensitivity [2]. Here we report on a novel pT-magnetic sensor that does not require a bias magnetic field and is based on a PZT bimorph with a permanent magnet proof mass. Mechanical strain on the PZT bimorph in this case is produced by interaction between the applied ac magnetic field and static magnetization of the permanent magnet, resulting in an induced voltage across PZT [3]. Our studies have been performed on sensors with a bimorph of oppositely poled PZT platelets and a NdFeB permanent magnet proof mass. Magnetic floor noise N on the order of 100 pT/vHz and 10 nT/vHz are measured at 1 Hz and 10 Hz, respectively. When the ac magnetic field is applied at the bending resonance of 40 Hz for the bimorph measured N ~ 700 pT/vHz. We also discuss a theory for the magneto-electro-mechanical coupling at low frequency and bending resonance in the sensor and theoretical estimates of ME voltage coefficients are in very good agreement with the data. The sensor in the present study consisted of a cantilever of two oppositely poled piezoelectric layers of length 50 mm, width 10 mm, and thickness 0.15 mm with one end clamped and a magnet assembly of two NdFeB magnets mounted on top and bottom of the bimorph at the free end so that the remnant magnetization M is directed perpendicular to the bimorph plane. An ac magnetic field H generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils is applied parallel to the bimorph length so that interaction with M gives rise to a piezoelectric strain in PZT and a voltage V across the bimorph thickness. The ME voltage coefficient measured as a function of frequency f increased from 10 V/cm Oe at 1-25 Hz to a peak value of 500 V/cm Oe at the bending resonance frequency of 40 Hz, corresponding to a magnetic floor noise in the range 100 pT/vHz and 10 nT/vHz. A model developed here is based on equations for the strain, electric displacement and magnetic induction of individual layers of piezoelectric and the permanent magnet. For finding the low frequency and resonance ME voltage coefficients, we solve elastostatic and electrostatic equations in PZT due to interaction between H and M, taking into account boundary conditions. In this case, the theoretical modeling is similar to ME coupling in a ferromagnetic and ferroelectric bilayer of [1]. The estimated MEVC have been estimated as a function of frequency and are found to be in very good agreement with the data. To summarize, a pT-magnetic sensor consisting of a PZT bimorph and a permanent magnet proof mass has been demonstrated in this study. Such sensors of ac magnetic field do not require a bias magnetic field that is essential for sensors utilizing ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites. References 1. Ce-Wen Nan, M. I. Bichurin, S. Dong, D. Viehland, and G. Srinivasan, J. Appl. Phys.103, 031101 (2008). 2. J. Wang, D. Gray, D. Barry, J. Gao, M. Li, J. Li, and D. Viehland, Adv. Mater. 23, 4111 (2011). 3. Zengping Xing, Jiefang Li, and D. Viehland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013505 (2008).
pp. 593-597
09:54 Advances in stretched and oscillating-wire methods for magnetic measurement
Carlo Petrone (CERN, Switzerland); Domenico Caiazza (University of Sannio & CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland); Pasquale Arpaia (Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universitá del Sannio, Italy); Guy Deferne and Stephan Russenschuck (CERN, Switzerland)
A versatile measurement system has been designed and commissioned at CERN, which is based on a wire sensor in different modes of operation: the classical single-stretched wire mode, the oscillating wire mode employing frequencies well below the first natural resonance, as well as the vibrating wire mode where the wire is excited in the first or higher-order resonance conditions. In this paper, the main technical challenges and constraints of the wire methods are presented, together with the applications to locate the magnetic axis of a string of magnets on a common girder and to the measurement of multipole errors. Sources of uncertainty, stemming from the wire motion unsuitability, are discussed, different wire motion transducers are compared, and the effect of background fields and environmental effects is studied.
pp. 598-602
10:12 An analytic approach to magnetic speed sensing
Michael Ortner (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria); Bernd Filipitsch (Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Austria)
To design and optimally layout sensor systems that involve magnetic sensing technologies a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics of magnetic field propagation is often indispensable. This work focuses on magnetic speed sensor layout and comprises an analytical treatment of the feed back of eddy currents that develop in thin layers onto the external magnetic field. The method proposed in this work is based on a connection between infinite integrals of Bessel functions and the complete elliptic integrals and is demonstrated for simple, well-known solutions. In the general case this ansatz provides means to go beyond the usual integral solutions, supplying a basis for further functional understanding of this problem. Connections between skin depth, sensor position, field inhomogeneity and other key parameters are discussed with potentially relevant insights into optimal sensor positioning for chip manufacturers.
pp. 603-607
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S10B: Capacitive Sensors Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand)
09:00 Electrical Capacitance Tomography with a Variable Topology
Stephan Mühlbacher-Karrer and Hubert Zangl (Alpen-Adria Universität, Austria)
In this paper we present a novel approach for Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) with a variable electrode topology of the sensor front end. The topology of the ECT can be continuously varied while the reconstruction takes place. The unique combination of light weight signal processing chain with a variable dual plate planar sensor front end meets the usability and performance requirements of robotic and mobile applications. The experimental results show the feasibility of this approach achieving reconstruction results with low artefacts even with a low number of electrodes not only in the vicinity of the electrodes but also in the center of the Region of Interest (ROI). Moreover, this sensor topology can be miniaturized which eases the integration, e.g., on a robot's end effector.
pp. 608-612
09:18 Low Cost Non Contact Capacitive Gauge glass Level Transmitter suitable for Remote Measurement & Control
Joyanta Kumar Roy (MCKV Institute of Engineering & System Advance Technologies Pvt. Ltd., India); Suman Das (MCKV Institute of Engineering, India)
The gauge glass is simple way to measure the liquid level in water reservoir and is classified as primary measurement system of liquid level. This work demonstrated design and development of electrically modified capacitive non-contact level transmitter suitable for low cost industrial and home application. The error involves in the measurement due to fringe capacitances eliminated in the design and achieved stable and accurate results. The transmitter is built with analog PIDD-1 controller with improved design and the entire unit developed is a compact gauge glass conductive liquid level indicator cum controller.
pp. 613-617
09:36 Investigation of error- and drift sources in a capacitive sensor system for sub-nanometer displacement measurement
Roumen Nojdelov (Arsen Development Ltd., Bulgaria); Dirk Voigt and Arthur S. van de Nes (VSL, The Netherlands); Stoyan Nihtianov (Technical University - Delft, The Netherlands)
In this paper we present an investigation of the main non-idealities and error sources in precision capacitive displacement sensors. The sources of errors are described quantitatively and a compensation technique is proposed. The linearity of a capacitive sensor with self-alignment feature is tested with an optical Fabry-Perot displacement Interferometer. Experimental data from the practical implementation of the compensation is presented. Two different models for guard ring gap correction are compared and verified with the experimental data. Accuracy of better than 2 nm is achieved for displacement range of 15 um, using only two calibration points.
pp. 618-623
09:54 A Novel Sensing Technique based on Capacitive Response of Microfluidic-based Acoustic Sensor (μBAS) for Underwater Acoustic Communication
Mohamad Faizal Abd Rahman (Universiti Sains Malaysia & Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia, Malaysia); Asrulnizam Abd Manaf (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia); Mohd Rizal Arshad (USM, Malaysia); Khairul Azman Ahmad (Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia)
This work proposed a new concept of generating an Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) signal meant for underwater communication. The technique is based on the different fluctuation of capacitance response of μBAS towards different burst parameter of piezoelectric transducer (PZT). Result shows that the number of burst cycle can be manipulated accordingly to produce a two level signal which could be representing the transmitting information. The maximum and minimum fluctuation of capacitive responses are found to be occurred at burst cycle of 3 and 5, respectively, and this pattern is seems to be repeating after each 5 cycle.
pp. 624-628
10:12 Development of a Sensing System to detect C-telopeptide of type-I Collagen
Nasrin Afsarimanesh (Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand); Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand); Pak Yu (Massey University, New Zealand); Jürgen Kosel (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia)
This research work describes a non-invasive and label-free immunosensing technique to detect the C- telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-1) by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital capacitive sensor is used to evaluate the properties of the material under test. This sensor was fabricated on the basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. EIS was used in conjunction with the sensor to detect collagen type-I in blood plasma. At the first stage, the Serum CrossLaps® ELISA was used to measure some known samples in order to obtain a standard curve. Streptavidin agarose was successfully immobilized on the sensing area of the sensor. After that the experiments were done with antibody solution and three known samples of CTX-1, zero concentration which was considered as control, 2.669 ng/ml and 0.798 ng/ml concentration. The results are encouraging for further investigation.
pp. 629-633
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S10C: Healthcare Applications II Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Nitish Patel (University of Auckland, New Zealand)
09:00 Fabric Antenna with Body Temperature Sensing for BAN Applications over 5G Wireless Systems
Xiaoyou Lin, Boon-Chong Seet and Frances Joseph (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
This paper proposes a fabric-based antenna with body temperature sensing function for communication and sensing by body area network (BAN) applications. The antenna is designed to operate at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) band of 38 GHz, which is a candidate frequency band for future 5th generation (5G) wireless systems. The antenna's performance is studied in both free space and on-body environments. Due to its relatively high quality (Q) factor, the antenna's resonant frequency is sensitive to even small variations in the substrate's dielectric constant induced by the narrow range of temperature changes of the human body.
pp. 634-638
09:18 Electrodermal Activity Based Study on the Relationship Between Visual Attention and Eye Blink
Tsugunosuke Sakai, Ryuichi Yoshida and Haruya Tamaki (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Takeki Ogitsu (Tokyo University of Science & Faculty of Science and Technology, Japan); Hiroshi Takemura (Noda Tus, Japan); Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Ryohei Egusa, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan); Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan); Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan); Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan)
In this paper, the relationship between visual attention and eye blinking is described. In our experiment, we observed blinking when a subject performed a task. We determined that the subject's visual attention functions during the task by electrodermal activity. Experimental results showed that blink rate decreased when the subject's visual attention was engaged. On the other hand, blink rate increased when the subject's visual attention shifted from attentive to inattentive. These findings enable a more objective evaluation of the relationship between visual attention and blinking when determining by electrodermal activity whether visual attention is engaged.
pp. 639-642
09:36 A Review of Motion Related EEG Artifact Removal Techniques
Kai Cao (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia); Ying Guo (CSIRO, Australia); Steven Weidong Su (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia)
The traditional EEG (electroencephalograph) system requires the subject to stay still when acquiring bio-signals. There have been mobile EEG units, for instance ambulatory electroencephalography (aEEG), a portable device designed for recording ictal events or interictal epileptiform discharge. However, these were never intended for motion related EEG recordings. Such techniques constrain motion related brain potential tests. In order to open a new research area, multiple papers have been presented to deal with this issue. This paper covers a review from techniques and algorithms to hardware aspects of reduction on motion related EEG artifacts. In addition, a comparison with current motion reduced EEG systems is made. Also a conclusion is made for proper strategies on EEG artifact reduction.
pp. 643-647
09:54 An Adaptive Embedded System for Sensing Human Postures and Activities in a Smart Home: A Review
Arun Babu, Hemant Ghayvat, Subhas Mukhopadhyay, Kudakwashe Dube and Anindya Nag (Massey University, New Zealand)
Balance is regularly underestimated. It is hard to walk over a rock carport, move from strolling on a walkway to grass, or get out of bed amidst the a night without staggering. Such exercises can be amazingly exhausting and some time hazardous. Side effects that go with the flimsiness can incorporate dazedness, vertigo, listening to and vision issues, and trouble with focus and memory. Countless can be identified utilizing human stances, which if not recognized at the right time can be lethal. Here the exploration goes into the location of the sickness that incorporates Typhus, Temporomandibular disorders(TMD), Duane Syndrome, Tremor and Parkinson's disorder(PD) determined to have multiple sclerosis (MS), and determined to have a concussion. All the aforementioned ailment can be diagnosed by investigating the human stances thoroughly, our framework is intended for the same by achieving higher accuracy.
pp. 648-654
10:12 Modeling of tri-axial accelerometers in a self-designed wearable inertial measurement unit
Hamzah Alqudah1, Xiwei Cui, Lin Ye and Kai Cao (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia); Jan Szymanski (University of Technology, Australia); Ying Guo (CSIRO, Australia); Steven Weidong Su (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia)
This paper introduces a self-designed wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU-BMSJv2) and the calibration of its tri-axial accelerometers. We compare two popular accelerometer calibration approaches, the classical method (attitude dependent) and auto calibration method (attitude independent). Both these two calibration methods have been applied for the calibration of the self-designed IMU-BMSJv2; verification experiments have been carried out for the calibration of the tri-axial accelerometers. Experimental results show that although the auto-calibration method has the advantage of attitude independency, the classical calibration method can achieve better parameter estimation. We thus claim that the attitude dependent calibration method is still the first option given that certain experimental conditions are satisfied.
pp. 655-660
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S10D: Optical Sensors I Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Jesus Corres (Public University of Navarra, Spain)
09:00 FBG based transducers for morphing applications
Salvatore Ameduri (CIRA, Italy); Monica Ciminello (Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, Slovenia); Antonio Concilio and Angela Brindisi (Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, Italy); Giuseppe Sala and Paolo Bettini (Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
This paper describes FBG-based transducers, conceived to modulate large strains following some peculiar engineering applications like morphing. For each transducer, the design phase is illustrated: moving from the specs, the design parameters are then identified and their optimal configuration is assessed, Preliminary demonstrators are finally manufactured and tested, allowing a comparison with the numerical outcomes.
pp. 661-667
09:18 A Detection Scheme for Reactions of Optical Fiber Sensors with the Internet Standard Protocol
Koki Fuchigami and Norihiko Shinomiya (Soka University, Japan)
This paper proposes a detection scheme for reactions of optical fiber sensors and shows experiments and results to identify sensor conditions with Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) as the Internet standard protocol. Optical Sensory Nerve network (OSN) with optical fiber sensors has been developed in order to alleviate issues on wireless sensor networks about battery lifetime and data communication. Moreover, a method to gather sensed information with SNMP and a commercially available device has been devised; however, this method holds issues on limited performance. Thus, this paper demonstrates the detection scheme using original SNMP agent software and experiments utilizing two types of sensors (binary switch sensors & mat sensors). The SNMP agent software allows to increase the number of sensors which can be detected and installed in OSN.
pp. 668-672
09:36 Enhancing Mobile Device Peripheral Controls using Visible Light Communication (VLC)
Ahmed Farooq, Grigori Evreinov and Roope Raisamo (University of Tampere, Finland)
Since its emergence, Optical communication systems have always been considered as a significantly attractive alternative to wired data transfer techniques, especially in environment where high data rate is essential in a multi-component system. Unfortunately, optical communication is still not as robust as traditional mechanisms and suffers from various types of distortion, such as jitter in data propagation. These issues can degrade the performance of a transmission system by introducing bit errors and uncontrolled offsets or displacements in the digital signals. However, these issues are more apparent with bidirectional full duplex data transfers in which complex bit streams are multiplexed within slotted intervals in a synchronized clock scheme. Although efforts have been made to improve robustness of the high bitrate data communication, we believe that optical communication may also be useful in environments where unidirectional control signals are passed down in a parallel bit stream in an asynchronous setup removing the need to multiplex data streams and assign timeslots to the transferred data. These low traffic control communication signals can be used to regulate a wide host of components and peripherals which may not be suitable in a traditional wired setup. For this purpose, our research focuses on utilizing a section of the conventional display to generate unidirectional control signals for attached modular peripherals. Using various display technologies, we proved that this type of control communication can robustly interact with external systems without the need for complex signal encoding, which is essential in traditional serial communication protocols. We believe that this technique can reduce signal encoding delays by relying on parallel processes for data transfer within a limited segment of the video frame in communicating with common peripheral devices.
pp. 673-678
09:54 Dinitrobenzene Sensing utilizing Chitosan-based Thin films Optical Fluorescence Sensors via Linear and Nonlinear Excitation
Ahmad Shukri bin Muhammad Noor, Abdullahi Yusufu and Hazwani Nadirah Mohd Azami (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Nizam Tamchek (University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Zurina Zainal Abidin (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
We presented here the findings of linear and nonlinear excitation of an optical fluorescence sensor enhanced with chitosan-based thin films coated on tapered optical fiber for detecting of dinitrobenzene solution compound. The absorbance peak of linear excitation at 441.2 nm shows a small shift to from 540.8 nm to 541.3 nm when 0.003g/ml dinitrobenzene was diluted in acetone. Time resolved fluorescence resulting in decreasing of fluorescence intensities was recorded for both linear and nonlinear excitation. Both showed an agreement of quenching of fluorescence up to 30% of its initial fluorescence due to the free electron transfer from chitosan thin film to the dinitrobenzene. Nonlinear excitation gives more rapid time-resolved florescence after 4 minutes compared to 6 minutes in linear excitation.
pp. 679-683
10:12 Calibration of Virtual Detection Zone and CCTV Data for Cell Transmission Model
Benny Hardjono (Universitas Pelita Harapan & Computer Science Postgraduate Student at Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia)
This paper shows that our novel method, Virtual Detection Zone (VDZ) system with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) snap shots can provide the empirical data needed to construct Fundamental Diagrams and to calibrate a chosen model. VDZ system is better than the traditional system which uses loop detectors, as it is able to show zero speeds at totally jammed density, which is an essential parameter for macroscopic traffic model. Real data set have been obtained using only seven VDZ agents who have carried GPS enabled smart phones, together with snapshots from fifteen existing CCTV, on Tangerang to Jakarta highway (a distance of 21 km). The test, carried out without the use of any intrusive sensors, has produced data which is in agreement with previous traditional method. By adopting and modifying Cell Transmission Model or CTM, a variant Macro model, it is shown that simulated speeds for AM cluster generated by CTM can be calibrated to follow real traffic data. Its Mean Absolute Percentage Error or MAPE can be improved from 93.8 to 48.8% and improved further by 5.1% using type test method.
pp. 684-689
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10:45 - 11:39 S11A: Current Sensors Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Tayeb Mohammed-Brahim (University Rennes 1, France)
10:45 Metrological Frequency Response Analysis of a High Current Instrument Transformer
Christian Jaeschke and Peter Schegner (TU Dresden, Germany)
This paper presents the metrological frequency response analysis of a high current instrument transformer (HCT) with a rated primary current of 8kA. A special measuring system is used to identify the frequency response of the HCT at different primary currents in a frequency range up to 40kHz. The burden dependency of the frequency response is determined by using different resistive and resistive-inductive burden. The measuring results indicate the good transmission behaviour of the HCT at higher frequencies by applying resistive burdens. But by using resistive-inductive burdens, resonances with high peaks occur, deteriorate the transmission behaviour of the HCT and cause high voltages at its secondary side.
pp. 690-695
11:03 Use of a Nanocrystalline Core for a Non-invasive AC Current Sensor
Karel Draxler and Jan Hlavacek (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic); Renata Styblikova (Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic); Martin Knenicky (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
In the field of electrotechnology, measurements of AC current are often made at 50 AC frequency without disconnecting the current circuit (a non-invasive method). The instruments most widely used for these measurements are clamp ammeters, which operate on the instrument current transformer (ICT) principle, and Rogowski coils (RC). A disadvantage of these instruments is their limited measurement accuracy, which is in excess of 0.2% FS for most of these sensors. The phase displacement is not usually determined, or it is too high for the sensors to be used for making precise power measurements by a non-invasive method. Clamp ammeters are mostly assigned for measurements of current at 50 Hz frequency. However, Smart Grid systems sometimes require current measurements in a wider frequency band (e.g. photovoltaic sources) in the range from 500 Hz to 1 kHz. A sensor operating on the split core ICT principle substantially reduces the ratio error and the phase displacement. A magnetic circuit made of a nanocrystalline material served to preserve the required accuracy in the relevant frequency band. The main problem when manufacturing the sensor is to split the toroidal core wound by a nanocrystalline tape 20 um in thickness with the smallest possible apparent decrease in permeability. This paper describes a procedure for splitting the core, the design of the sensor with a view to minimizing its error, and the resulting sensor error measurement.
pp. 696-700
11:21 A method to monitor the current in a high temperature superconductor tape at cryogenic environment
Rajinikumar Ramalingam (Institute of Technical Physics & Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Campus North, Germany)
In this work, the performance of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor attached on a cryogenic compatible giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) to monitor the current in a Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) high temperature superconductor (HTS) is reported. The sensors were installed in vertical, horizontal, standing and angled configurations on an HTS tape. The current flowing in an HTS tape generates a self magnetic field around the tape and its magnitude depends upon the applied current. The self generated magnetic field induces a corresponding strain in the FBG sensor attached to a GMM material which in turn change the Bragg wavelength. The sensor installed in horizontal and standing configuration shows no change for applied current, whereas the total Bragg wavelength shift of the vertical and angled configuration has been found to be 124.75 pm and 87.5 pm respectively. The average sensor sensitivity of vertical configuration has been estimated to be 0.39 pm / A and for angled configuration, it was found to be 0.27 pm/A. Also, sensor resolution together with measurement unit was found to be 2.56 A for vertical and 3.70 A for angled configuration. In this paper, the design and technology requirements to adapt the FBG sensor concept for current monitoring in an HTS conductor is presented. Initial experiments, which demonstrate the current measurement at 77 K is reported.
pp. 701-706
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S11B: Optical Sensors II Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Joyanta Kumar Roy (MCKV Institute of Engineering & System Advance Technologies Pvt. Ltd., India)
10:45 A flexible measurement system for absorption spectrometry using LED light sources and a high accuracy two-channel ADC for simultaneous sampling
Hendrik Krüger (University of Rostock, Germany); Marian Rabe (University Rostock, Germany); Eric Ebert (University Rostock & Universität Rostock, Germany); Patrick Busch (University Of Rostock, Germany); Nils Damaschke and Hartmut Ewald (University of Rostock, Germany)
Real time, high resolution measurements of gas concentrations are a task in many industrial applications like smoke detectors, medical and analytical devices. By usage of LED sources for optical absorption spectroscopy, such systems have a high potential to replace commonly used electrochemical sensors, even in low-cost applications. Depending on the gases, they can provide higher sensitivity, selectivity and dynamical response. Background of this paper is the optical gas concentration measurement by usage of LEDs, which are matching the specific absorption lines of different gases. The paper describes in detail a laboratory device, developed for high precision, multispectral (up to 8 wavelengths), referenced (20-bit, two-channel simultaneous sampling) measurement system with temperature stabilized LED sources. While the described system was developed for laboratory purposes with high precision and flexibility in mind, the key components (ADC / LED-Driver) are very low-cost and the system could also be driven by a simple microcontroller.
pp. 707-710
11:03 Influence of the Surface Oxide Content of a Boron Capping Layer on UV Photodetector Performance
Vahid Mohammadi (Delft University of Technology & EI Lab., The Netherlands); Robbert van de Kruijs (University of Twente, The Netherlands); Padmakumar Ramachandra Rao (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands); Marko Sturm (University of Twente, The Netherlands); Stoyan Nihtianov (Technical University - Delft, The Netherlands)
This paper presents our latest results from the investigation of the surface oxide content in boron capped layers used as the entrance window in ultraviolet silicon (UV-Si) photodetectors. These photodetectors have been studied electrically and optically to define the correlation between oxide content and performance, i.e. the direct relationship between the amount of undesired surface oxide in the active region where the boron layer is deposited, and the detector stability to high UV exposure levels. The boron capping layers were deposited by either chemical or physical vapor based deposition techniques (CVD or PVD). Although these techniques provide photodetectors that are highly sensitive to UV radiation [1], the formation of surface oxide during deposition is a major concern, especially for stability. To analyze the oxide content, an XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis was performed on high-temperature (HT-CVD: 700 C), low-temperature (LT-CVD: 400 C), and room-temperature (RT-CVD: 25 C) based pure boron (PureB) photodetectors. An inverse relationship between deposition temperature and oxide content was noticed. While the HT-CVD based photodetectors were found to contain 30% of oxide in its active region, this amount drops to less than 10% for LT-CVD, and to a few percent for RT-PVD based process.
pp. 711-715
11:21 A Method of Registering Optical Measurements to Computer Models
Nathan Tomer (Plant and Food Research, New Zealand); Andrew McGlone (The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, New Zealand); Rainer Kunnemeyer (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
We present a method that is suitable for registering experimental near infrared absorption measurements on produce with simulation models of diffuse optical transport. The technique uses a structured light scanner to capture the three dimensional shape of the produce and the locations of the measurement sources and detectors. The scanned data is processed in Matlab to measure the optode separation for each measurement, allowing evaluation of the extinction coefficient for the produce. The method can record the geometry of the optode locations to within 1% of the size of the produce, here onions.
pp. 716-719
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S11C: Motion Sensors and Tracking Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Akbar Ghobakhlou (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
10:45 An Analytical Approach for Head Gesture Recognition with Motion Sensors
Nina Rudigkeit and Marion Gebhard (Westphalian University of Applied Sciences, Germany); Axel Graeser (University of Bremen, Germany)
Within this work, an analytical approach for robust recognition of four different head gestures in a continuous data stream is presented. Analytical solutions are more robust against signal variations than pure signal-oriented approaches. Furthermore, they enable user-independent gesture recognition. The proposed model integrates information about sensor placement and ideal shape of gestures. Furthermore, activity-based windowing was used to increase computational efficiency. Model parameter values were obtained empirically. For evaluation, data were collected from ten subjects using a 9-axis MEMS motion sensor system. The subjects were instructed to repeat each of the defined gestures five times. In addition a total number of 25 motion patterns slightly different to the defined gestures were recorded for each subject. Applying user-specific parameters an average classification rate of 93.56% ± 4.96% was achieved. User independent parameters led to an average classification rate of 87.56% ± 8.90%. It is likely that the performance using user independent parameters can be further increased when giving the user meaningful feedback about how to adjust their movements. However, future research will cover real-time performance of the model in a natural environment.
pp. 720-725
11:03 A Pressure/Motion Sensor System to Quantify Abdominal Palpations in Traditional Medicine
Takashi Katsuki (Fujitsu Laboratories LTD. & Monozukuri Technologies Laboratory, Japan); Sachihiro Youoku and Xiaoyu Mi (Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Japan); Fumihiko Nakazawa (Fujitsu Laboratories LTD., Japan); Tadaaki Kawanabe, Hiroshi Odaguchi and Toshihiko Hanawa (Kitasato University, Japan)
This paper describes a new sensor system for an abdominal palpation procedure in traditional medicine. This sensor system uses a motion capture system and a thin film force/pressure sensor which enables to measuring the depth and the force/pressure at the same time during abdominal palpations. We customised the motion capture system, making it suitable for abdominal palpations, to prevent a physician from being distracted and to eliminate blind spots. We fabricated a detecting circuit for the force/pressure sensor which uses a Bluetooth low energy module and which is powered by a coin cell battery. The circuit enables mounting the detecting circuit on a glove. In addition, we developed a user interface application which is easy to use and which records the information on abdominal palpations on a personal computer. The abdominal palpation sensor system should transfer the diagnostic criteria to young physicians more easily and appropriately in traditional medicine.
pp. 726-729
11:21 Real-time object tracking based on colour feature and perspective projection
Joseph Tsoi, Nitish Patel and Akshya Kumar Swain (University of Auckland, New Zealand)
This paper proposes a fast and robust real-time object tracking technique in a ball and beam system following the concept of rotating frame (to be called as rotating ball and beam system). The technique uses a standard contact free video camera which is placed at a static position and allows the sensor to capture the entire dynamic motion of the system. Since the captured image is in the world coordinates, instead of the rotating beam coordinates, the position of the object is easily extracted using either of the two projective transform methods such as Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV) or Hue, Saturation (HS). Experimental results on a prototype ball and beam system demonstrate that performance of HS based object localization, which ignores the light intensity, is better compared with HSV based method.
pp. 730-735
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S11D: WSN, IoT and Cloud Computing Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Octavian Adrian Postolache (Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisboa/IT & Instituto Universitario de Lisboa, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal)
10:45 Sensing Service Framework for Climate Alert System Using WSN-CLOUD Infrastructure
Arunachalam B (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), India); Arjun Dhanpal (Visvesvaraya Technological University & C-DAC, India); Prahlada Rao Bhaskara B (Joint Director & Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, India); Haribabu Pasupuleti and V Dwarakanath (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, India)
This paper deals with a sensing service framework for integrating wireless sensor networks and cloud infrastructure to generate user alerts during climate disasters and also analyze climate data at reduced cost. The occurrence of natural disaster affects property, infects lives and changes our actuality completely. Related work does not support sensor and network level virtualization for climate or weather sensors. The proposed work overcomes the above drawbacks by deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks infrastructure for different climate applications using virtual sensor and climate overlay approach and also monitors climate data by issuing Sensing Service and social media alerts during climate disaster. All these factors improve and give alters to end users and climate analysts at reduced price.
pp. 736-741
11:03 An Architecture to Analyze Big data in the Internet of Things
Sadia Awan (Abasyn University Islamabad, Korea); Hemant Ghayvat (Massey University, New Zealand); Imran Shafi (Abasyn University Islamabad Campus, Sector I-9/2, Pakistan); Awais Ahmad (Bahria University, Pakistan); Muhammad Mazhar Ullah Rathore (Kyungpook National University, Buk-gu, Deagu, South Korea, Korea); Anand Paul (Kyungpook National University & Hanyang University, Korea)
Internet of Things (IoT) is nowadays increasingly becoming a worldwide network of interconnected devices uniquely addressable, via a standard communication protocol. Such devices generate a massive volume of heterogeneous data, which lead a system towards a major computational challenges, such as aggregation, storing, and processing. Also, a major problem arises when there is a need to extract useful information from this massive volume of data. Therefore, to address these needs, this paper proposes an architecture to analyze big data in the IoT. The basic concept involves the partitioning of dynamic data, i.e., big data with the complex magnitude is divided into subsets. These subsets are based on the theoretical model of data fusion, which works in the Hadoop processing server to enhance the computational efficiency. The proposed architecture is tested by analyzing healthcare data sets, mainly comprises of activities including walking, running, ECG. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are implemented on Hadoop single node setup on UBUNTU 14.04 LTS coreTMi5 machine with 3.2 GHz processor and 4 GB memory. The results show that the proposed architecture efficiently analyze the massive volume of data with a maximum throughput.
pp. 742-747
11:21 Comparative Studies of Embedded Platform For IoT Based Implementation
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Mukhopadhyay and Hemant Ghayvat (Massey University, New Zealand); Ruili Wang (Massey University, ? ); Jie Liu (Massey University, P.R. China); Helen Zhou (Manukau Institute of Technology, New Zealand)
The present research work aims to design, develop and propose an Intel Galileo based interdigital wireless sensing platform. This IoT based platform processes data at the end-device level and delivers the analyzed information to the cloud server. Moreover, present this paper review some of the recent approaches to IoT implemented for wireless sensing applications.
pp. 748-752
11:39 An Automatic Switch for Power Consumption Reduction Based on the Technology of Internet of Things
Po-Han Chen and Chien-Hao Wang (National Taiwan Uniersity, Taiwan); Si-Yuan Chen and Chwan-Lu Tseng (National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan); Yeun-Chung Lee and Joe-Air Jiang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Internet of Things (IoT) has become a popular issue in academic research. The technology of Wireless Sensing Network can fully implement the concept of IoT. A WSN uses less expensive sensors to automatically monitor environmental factors and to transmit sensing data. Therefore, the cost of manually collecting sensing data can be largely reduced. WSNs are often deployed to an outdoor environment where power sources are limited. Moreover, the sampling cycle plays an important role in WSNs, and it deeply affects the accuracy of data analysis. This research purposes to add an automatic switch capable of adjusting sampling intervals to increase the flexibility of WSNs. Researchers can thus reduce the power consumption of WSNs by controlling the power supply of micro wireless devices and improve the quality of monitoring data by controlling the sampling cycle through a computer or a smartphone. Based on the simulation results, it can successfully reduce 54% of power use.
pp. 753-758
11:57 Using WSN for Possum Management
Akbar Ghobakhlou (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand); Philip J Sallis (Auckland University of Technology, NZ & Auckland University of Technology, NZ, New Zealand); Shane Inder, Samuel Blok and Xie Wang (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
The introduction of Possums to New Zealand was originally intended to establish a fur trade. The population rapidly grew since there is no predators and lots vegetation. As a result, possums have a huge impact on NZ ecosystems. There has been many investigation employing various approaches to effectively control the Possum population in the past years. Wireless mesh sensor is a cost-effective and suitable architecture for possum management application. This paper presents the current status of a 'mammalian pest management' project and proposes a Wireless Sensor Actuator Network (WSAN) system designed for a remote monitoring of possum management system.
pp. 759-763
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13:15 - 14:45 S12A: Magnetic Sensors II Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Michael Ortner (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria)
13:15 Magnetic field shaping for improved 1-D linear position measurement
Marcelo Ribeiro and Michael Ortner (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria)
Linear position measurement is currently present in diverse formats in industrial and automotive applications, sometimes as a direct way of measuring distance or detecting position, sometimes as a way of indirectly detecting other greatness or characteristics such as temperature, force, stress, angle, among others. Both in industrial and automotive applications, it is not uncommon to face environments with rough physical characteristics, such as extreme temperatures, physical stresses, changes in relative humidity, dirt, and etc. While most sensing systems would be affected by these, magnetic systems present themselves as a robust solution, being capable of working in harsh environments, e.g. in the presence of dirt and at high temperature, and have life-times of up to decades. This along with the fact that permanent magnets are a source of reference signal that do not depend on external factors such as batteries or excitations, and can be detected even from outside of an enclosed system, it is easy to understand its widen use in nowadays industrial solutions. On the other hand, the fast decay of the magnetic field of a magnet is a known characteristic and normally a limiting factor regarding distance between magnet and sensor, which usually means the need of using stronger magnets. Another point to be taken in consideration is the complexity of the magnetic fields, which normally leads to the use of 2D magnetic sensors, whose extra dimension allows an extension of the measurements range and better handling of the constructive tolerances involved in the system. These two characteristics lead to a increase in prices, which on mass production might turn into a critical factor. To overcome these issues, a proposal for shaping the magnetic fields is presented. It consists on the modification of the field's shape when seen from a specific point relative to the magnet, which turns the field in a pre-defined range into something close to linear with increased measurement range and distance between magnet and sensor, thus allowing developers to use weaker magnets and 1D magnetic sensors, which decrease production costs.
pp. 764-769
13:33 Online Monitoring of Milk Quality using Electromagnetic Wave Sensors
Keyur Joshi and Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom); Andrew Shaw (University of Liverpool, United Kingdom); Olga Korostynska, Jeff Cullen and Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
This work presents an innovative approach of milk quality testing by applying electromagnetic wave sensing for various categories of milk products. Three common milk types; whole milk, semi-skimmed milk and skimmed milk were used to demonstrate the experimental results and determine the quality of milk samples effectively. For all the three categories, adulteration process of milk was examined with the help of electromagnetic wave cavity. Classification among milk types and the ageing of milk could be shown, besides spoilage, comprehensively with the resulting graphs from relevant practical measurements comprising the detection and analysis of spectral signatures for S11 and S21 parameters. This work gave promising results in order to lay a foundation for a cost-effective, real-time, in situ, easy-to-use method for milk quality control that can be applied within and outside the premises of laboratory restrictions. This method also differentiates between varying fat contents of the three types of milk which makes a potential platform for composition check within milk. Electromagnetic wave cavity was used as a microwave sensing device to establish the experimental lab setup in conjunction with Vector Network Analyzer.
pp. 770-775
13:51 Robot-aided magnetic sensors readout suit
Marcelo Ribeiro (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria)
The robot-aided magnetic sensors readout suit consists of a system that integrates a robot arm to magnetic sensor readout boxes through a software which controls both the robot movements and the acquisition of data from the sensors. Permanent magnets are fixed to the robot arm, and the sensors read the magnetic flux densities in 1D and 3D, so the integration software is able to combine accurate position information with magnetic field strength and present the output graphically and in comma separate value files. The graphical interface on the integration software has a tabbed layout, where information is grouped into areas such as: status, configuration, control and measurement. The system has been developed to allow controlled magnet movements around magnetic sensors in order to identify the field behavior. Until now the applications include position detection due to magnetic field changes, sensor characterization, validation of simulations and analytics. Future efforts consist on increasing reproducibility by the implementation of more accurate sensor holders and to advance accuracy and precision of measurements.
pp. 776-780
14:09 Experimental Design for the Calibration of Tri-axial Magnetometers
Lin Ye and Steven Weidong Su (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia)
The calibration and its associated experimental design scheme for the tri-axial magnetometers are explored in this paper. For the widely used 9-parameter model of Tri-axial Magnetometers, based on experimental design of Tri-axial accelerometers, a 12-observation experiment scheme, whose observations are located in the vertices of an icosahedron, is presented to reduce estimation error. As this 12-observation scheme is proved to be rotatable, before experiment, it is not required to identify the direction of the magnetic field of the Earth. For this 12- observation experiment scheme, a simple parameter estimation algorithm is presented, which can be easily implemented in a micro-controller with low computational capacity. Although, this calibration method utilizes the projections of the local Earth magnetic field as calibration inputs, a high precision turntable is not essential for ensuring desired calibration accuracy.
pp. 781-785
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S12B: Spectroscopy Techniques Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Olga Korostynska (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
13:15 Development of Helium-microwave-induced Plasma-atomic Emission Spectroscopy System with Two-way Spectroscopic Analysis
Satoshi Ikezawa (Waseda University, Japan)
This paper reports on a helium-microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (He-MIP-AES) system with two-way spectroscopic analysis that fulfills the criteria prescribed by the Ministry of Environment, Japan, for measuring the chemical components of particulate matter (PM). The He-MIP-AES system is a reconstruction of a commercial particle analyzer system. In current environmental monitoring systems, PMs are typically collected on trapping filters placed across Japan and classified as either suspended particulate matter (SPM) or PM2.5 depending on the size. The collected PMs are subsequently analyzed with automated measurement instruments such as a piezo balance and with methods such as beta ray attenuation and light scattering. While these measurement methods allow the mass concentration of PMs in the air to be obtained at hourly intervals, the chemical composition of individual particles is analyzed with time-intensive laboratory procedures. In contrast, the presented measurement system allows the chemical compositions and particle sizes to be measured simultaneously in real time.
pp. 786-791
13:33 Potential of Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement for Lard Detection
Masyitah Mat Sairin (University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Nina Naquiah Ahmad Nizar, Samsuzana Abd Aziz and Dzulkifly Mat Hashim (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Fakhrul Zaman Rokhani (University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
Fast and reliable techniques for detection of food adulteration are indispensable to verify food authenticity. In this study, the detection of lard against different types of animal fats based oil using dielectric spectroscopy technique subjected to middle frequency range of 100Hz - 100KHz is investigated. The animal fats were extracted and mixed with hexane solvent for different sample concentration levels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was applied to the collected data for statistical data analysis. The experimental results indicate that the dielectric value is not a function of frequencies but a function of sample's concentration levels. It is statistically shown that there is significant difference between type of animal fats with respect to their dielectric values at different frequencies and concentrations illustrating the ability of the proposed technique on lard detection objective. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify lard and other animal fats. Results show that lard can be distinguished clearly from other animal fat sample group.
pp. 792-797
13:51 Dielectrophoresis based Microfluidic chip for continuous label-free separation of cells
Debanjan Das (IIT Kharagpur, India); Karabi Biswas (I.I.T. Kharagpur, India); Soumen Das (IIT Kharagpur, India)
A continuous label-free cell separation chip has been presented based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) utilizing the electrical properties of cells. The proposed microfluidic chip consists of three planar electrodes, where the positive DEP cells/particles were moved away from the central streamline while the negative DEP cell remained in the central streamline. DEP response were tested on polystyrene beads and HaCaT cells which showed different DEP response with varying frequency. It has been observed that beads showed n-DEP in the whole frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz, while HaCaT cells showed a crossover from n-DEP to p-DEP at around 700 kHz. Finally, the label-free continuous separation efficacy has been tested by performing successful separation of beads and cells at 1 MHz.
pp. 798-802
14:09 Improved Detection Limits for Phthalates by Selective Solid-phase Micro-extraction
Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand); Nasrin Afsarimanesh (Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand); Anindya Nag (Massey University, New Zealand); Li Xie (Massey University & Palmerston North, New Zealand); Subhas Mukhopadhyay, Pak Yu and Ibrahim Al-Bahadly (Massey University, New Zealand); Jürgen Kosel (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia)
Presented work reports on an improved method and enhanced limits of detection for phthalates; a hazardous additive used in the production of plastics by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) polymer in comparison to molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) polymer. The polymers were functionalized on an interdigital capacitive sensor for selective binding of phthalate molecules from a complex mixture of chemicals. Both polymers owned predetermined selectivity by formation of valuable molecular recognition sites for Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Polymers were immobilized on planar electrochemical sensor fabricated on a single crystal silicon substrate with 500 nm sputtered gold electrodes fabricated using MEMS fabrication techniques. Impedance spectra were obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the spiked sample solutions with various phthalate concentrations. Experimental results revealed that the ability of SPME polymer to adsorb target molecules on the sensing surface is better than that of MISPE polymer for phthalates in the sensing system. The results were validated by testing the samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detectors.
pp. 803-808
14:27 Investigation on Interdigitated Electrode Design for Impedance Spectroscopy Technique Targeting Lard Detection Application
Farhana Mohammad and Masyitah Mat Sairin (University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Nina Naquiah Ahmad Nizar, Samsuzana Abd Aziz and Dzulkifly Mat Hashim (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Fakhrul Zaman Rokhani (University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
This paper investigates the interdigitated electrode design for impedance spectroscopy technique targeting lard detection purposes. Two types of interdigitated electrode were designed and evaluated on high precision impedance converter board subjected to frequency range of 5kHz to 100 kHz. Samples of lard and beef tallow were extracted and mixed with hexane solvent for different concentration levels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the experimental data for statistical data analysis. Experimental results indicate that the impedance value is not a strong function of concentration levels but a function of frequencies. ANOVA results have confirmed that IDE Type-B that has larger electrode area has higher sensing sensitivity over Type-A. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used as a statistical multivariate modeling. PCA analysis results showed that the IDE Type B could group animal fats into two distinct groups using both parameters of frequencies and concentrations.
pp. 809-814
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S12C: Special Session on Sensors and Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Organizers: IEEE IMS Technical Committee 18 Environmental Measurements
Chairs: Akbar Ghobakhlou (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand), Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
13:15 Development of a Monitoring System for Honeybee Activities
Wei-Sheng Chen (National Taiwan University, Taiwan); Chien-Hao Wang (National Taiwan Uniersity, Taiwan); En-Cheng Yang and Joe-Air Jiang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
This research develops a honeybee behavior monitoring system. The proposed system monitors honeybees' daily activities of getting in and coming out their beehive. It provides a new way to observe honeybee behavior and replace the methods of human observation. Specifically, it automatically records environmental parameters near and in the beehive. The information collected by the system is used for statistical analysis, and the analyzed results help researchers have a better understanding of the relationship between the environmental factors and honeybees' activities of getting in and coming out of their beehive. The research results show that the proposed system is beneficial to future research projects involving large scale monitoring of bee colony activities.
pp. 815-820
13:33 Personal Environmental Monitoring System and Network Platform
Hyuntae Cho (Center for Integrated Smart Sensors, Korea)
In recent years, air pollution has become a critical social problem because harmful materials can cause disease and death to humans as well as damage to other living organisms, including food crops, or the natural or built environment. Many countries have attempted to reduce air pollution through various means. This paper presents a Personal Environmental Monitoring System (PEMS) and a Wearable Environmental Monitoring System (WEMS) that were developed by considering consumers' needs to detect and avoid exposure to air pollution. The systems include multiple gas sensors which are based on a semiconductor-based heater. This paper presents a design for a new system that incorporates digital hardware and analogue circuits. Basically, MOS (metal oxide semiconductor)-based gas sensors, mostly used in the market, consume a large amount of energy and have a low accuracy. The proposed system provides sensor calibration and communication to conserve energy and improve the accuracy of the sensor data. In addition, systems are connected to the Internet via Wi-Fi or user's Smartphone and can be connected to other machines for Internet of Things (IoT). This paper also presents the network platform for the PEMS and the WEMS.
pp. 821-826
13:51 Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of the Double Skin Envelope in the Full Scale Testing Modules of the Postgraduate Unit for a Cloudy and a Clear Day in Mexico City
Ricardo Sanchez and Leonardo Zeevaert (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico)
Equipment was installed to sense weather variables and global radiation on the roof of the Postgraduate Unit, UNAM. Experimental Modules were implemented and located in the same roof. Data was recorded every minute. The aim was to determine which of the measured variables directly affects the temperature of the inner side of the envelope. The obtained data was compared and showed that on a cloudy day, the global radiation does not interfere directly in the thermal behavior of the inner part. In this stage, the internal temperature of the module is directly related to the temperature inside the envelope. For a clear day we got that, the global radiation does interfere in the temperature of the inner face of the envelope, but is even more direct the relationship of the temperature inside the module with respect to the envelope temperature.
pp. 827-831
14:09 Novel Application of Spherical Microphone Array Sensor with Three-Dimensional Directivity for Home and Office Environments
T. Nakadai, Ryuichi Yoshida and Tomoki Taguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Ryohei Egusa (Kobe University, Japan); Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan); Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan); Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan); Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan); Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan)
Interest in sound interfaces is increasing because such interfaces do not need advanced knowledge about particular devices, nor do they require physical operation. However, such interfaces are difficult to use because the general living environment often contains background noise. In order to solve this problem, sound separation systems that use a microphone array sensor have been proposed. In previous work, this microphone array sensor was a small system that considered only two-dimensional (2-D) directivity control. In this paper, we present the design of a spherical microphone array sensor with 3-D directivity. This 3-D directivity property is confirmed via an experimental evaluation.
pp. 832-835
14:27 Wi-Fi connected environmental measurement system by small-scale solar cell
Yoshinori Matsumoto (Keio University, Japan); Yang Ishigaki and Kenji Tanaka (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan)
An environmental radiation detection system was developed using a low-power radiation-sensing module, IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) connection module, solar controller and battery. The data from the module were sent by Wi-Fi HTTP(S) clients operation, then collected by MySQL server using PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor uploading code as shown in Fig.1. The operation of the system was periodic (sleep and wakeup strategies), controlled by a real-time clock to achieve an average power consumption of 10 mW. The system also measured the voltage of the Li-ion battery and the temperature to check the system's condition. The system operates by small-scale solar energy harvesting with a 1.5-W solar panel and 1360-mAh Li-ion battery. The uploaded data on MySQL server are downloaded by web browser. Free sensor visualizing services such as Xviely are also used by the system. These visualizations and the log data help users check for hot spots in a contaminated area and to understand the environmental radiation level in a garden, forest, etc.
pp. 836-839
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S12D: Color, Light Sensing and Gas Sensors Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

13:15 White Light Triangulation Sensor for Flexible Inspection System
Abraham Mario Tapilouw, Yi-Wei Chang, Hsiao-Wei Liu, Hau-Wei Wang and Hung-Ming Tai (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
A triangulation sensor containing two light sources with different wavelength and individual slit has been developed. Differential technique is applied to improve spatial resolution as performing height reconstruction of a specimen. The system can measure up to 7 mm with accuracy up to 1.144 um. Robotic arm with multiple degrees of freedom can be employed as the motion platform to increase flexibility of inspection.
pp. 840-843
13:33 Multi-point hydrogen detection using SPR-based hetero-core structured hydrogen tip sensors and time domain interrogating system by PNCR
Ai Hosoki and Michiko Nishiyama (Soka University, Japan); Hirotaka Igawa (Institute of Aeronautical Technology, Japan); Kazuhiro Watanabe (Soka University Japan, Japan)
In this paper, the multi-point hydrogen detection system has been presented using the hetero-core optical fiber hydrogen tip sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and time domain interrogating system by means of Pseudorandom Noise code correlation reflectometry (PNCR) This method makes use of the correlation between a launched pseudorandom noise code signal and its reflection, can obtain a high signal to noise ration. A hetero-core optical fiber SPR hydrogen tip sensor with multi-layer film of gold, tantalum pentaoxide and palladium coated onto a cylindrical cladding surface, showed SPR resonant wavelength shift for 4% hydrogen concentration in nitrogen. In addition, multi-point hydrogen detection is demonstrated using two SPR hydrogen tip sensors. All sensors has successfully detected the hydrogen concentration with real-time responses and sufficient sensitivities.
pp. 844-847
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15:00 - 16:30 S13A: FPGA and Embedded Platforms Room No. ENG 3401/401-401

Chair: Bernd Eichberger (Graz University of Technology, Austria)
15:00 AES implementation on Xilinx FPGAs suitable for FPGA based WBSNs
Muhammad Rao and Thomas Newe (University of Limerick, Ireland); Ian Grout (University of Limerick, National Technological Park, Ireland)
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric key Block cipher that is used to provide data confidentiality in many embedded systems. Data confidentiality of each information is very important, either the information is related with bank account statements, credit card numbers, trade secrets, government documents or personal information. The confidentiality of a patient's physiological data is an important issue in traditional wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) due to the limited hardware resources, which makes traditional WBSNs not suitable for the implementation of security mechanisms. The Xilinx FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) is a suitable option for FPGA based WBSNs, because of the availability of more logic resources and better performance of FPGA. In this paper an FPGA based WBSN approach is discussed and an efficient implementation of AES is provided on latest Xilinx FPGAs (Artix-7, Virtex-7, Virtex-6, Virtex-4 and Spartan-6) that can be used to provide data confidentiality in FPGA based WBSNs. The presented efficient implementation technique of AES uses Block RAM resources of FPGA to get an optimized architecture with respect to power, speed and area. The results are provided in terms of throughput, slices, TPA and power. The XPA (Xilinx Power Analyzer) tool of Xilinx is used for power analysis.
pp. 848-853
15:18 Real-time PDR Based on Resource-Constrained Embedded Platform
Mohd Nazrin Muhammad (University of Auckland & Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, New Zealand); Zoran Salcic and Kevin I-Kai Wang (The University of Auckland, New Zealand)
Standalone inertial navigation system (INS) in indoor pedestrian positioning is becoming imminent as the researchers exploit its small form factor and low power requirement. This will result in small-size, low-power wearable devices that are not obtrusive to the users and yet provide sufficiently accurate pedestrian localization and tracking within. At this stage, most of the recent INS-based indoor pedestrian positioning systems still have to interface with other computing machines such as a laptop or smartphone to perform computationally demanding algorithms. Most of the existing techniques operate in off-line and not real-time mode. In this paper, we propose a real-time indoor pedestrian dead-reckoning system based on embedded INS. The results show that our system successfully track the distance travelled by pedestrians up to an error of three percent with a position update interval less than a second.
pp. 854-859
15:36 Frame-by-frame speech recognition as hardware decoding on FPGA devices
Masashi Nakayama (Hiroshima City University, Japan); Naoki Shigekawa (University of Fukui, Japan); Takashi Yokouchi (National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, Japan); Shunsuke Ishimitsu (Hiroshima City University, Japan)
This paper proposes frame-by-frame speech recognition as a hardware decoder on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). As a first step for FPGA implementation, Voice Activity Detection (VAD) using second order autocorrelation and a speech recognition decoder using formant frequency distances were evaluated. The hardware decoding was then implemented on an FPGA emulator. The VAD and decoder were demonstrated to be effective, and hence could be suitable for implementation on FPGA devices.
pp. 860-863
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S13B: Intelligent Sensing Room No. ENG 3401/401-402

Chair: Henry Leung (University of Calgary, Canada)
15:00 Intelligent Online Sensor Monitoring and Fault Alarm System in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems
Ying Guo, Josh Wall and Jiaming Li (CSIRO, Australia); Sam West (CSIRO Energy Centre, Australia)
The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is designed to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. A variety of sensing devices (such as temperature, humidity, velocity, or pressure sensors) are installed in the HVAC systems. In a realistic situation, the HVAC system can fail to satisfy performance expectations envisioned because of a variety of problems. This paper presents online sensor monitoring and fault detection techniques, as well as the key sensor sets selection approach to optimise the fault detection results. The methodology presented is also implemented in commercial buildings and experimental results show that different types of faults are detected successfully.
pp. 864-869
15:18 Optimization of Grasping Object Based on Pressure Sensor Measurement for Robotic Hand Gripper
Wan Zuha Wan Hasan (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Ahmed M. M. ALmassri (Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) 43400 Selangor, MALAYSIA, Malaysia); Siti Anom Ahmad (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia); Asnor Juraiza Ishak (Universiti Putra Malaysia & Faculty of Engineering, Malaysia)
This paper presents an optimization of grasping object based on pressure sensor measurement. In this work, a commercial flexi force pressure sensors are assembled on the robotic hand gripper model with introducing new arrangement of pressure distributions. For optimization purpose, we introduced Wheatstone Bridge Circuit (WBC) methods whereby the pressure distributions were applied. Therefore, with the new arrangement of pressure sensor distribution it has promised higher sensitivity as well as stability for the developed robotic hand gripper system. This framework is considered as one of the techniques that can be applied for robotic hand applications based on pressure sensor especially for high-risk tasks such as military and dangerous environment. In other word, it can save people's life.
pp. 870-873
15:36 Fuzzy Inference System Based Intelligent Sensor Fusion for Estimation of Surface Roughness in Machining Process
Ranjit Barai (Nanyang Technological University & Rolls-Royce@NTU Corporate Laboratory, Singapore); Tegoeh Tjahjowidodo and Bobby K Pappachan (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Measurement of surface roughness of any machining process is crucial for obtaining a component or part of the correct size and surface finish in the first instance, in order to minimize the manufacturing cost. In-process monitoring of machining processes based on an estimation of the surface roughness using the cutting parameters is inaccurate. In this investigation, a fuzzy inference system based on an intelligent sensor fusion model has been developed for the purpose of in-process indirect measurement of surface roughness for a machining process. In the proposed technique, measurement of the Speed Force component, Radial Force component, Feed Force component, Vibration, and Acoustic Emission sensor inputs from a turning process have been considered as the inputs. The results have been compared with the surface roughness estimated with a second order regression model using cutting parameters as inputs. The proposed method has shown considerable improvement in the surface roughness estimation in a simulation environment.
pp. 874-877
15:54 Improving Biogas Production Efficiency through Co-digestion of Cattle Dung with Crop Residues: a Case Study in Nepal
Shanti Adhikari (Massey University & Research Assistant, New Zealand); Ralph Sims (Massey University, New Zealand)
Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches have been applied in this study. Field survey was undertaken in Nepal comprising household survey at sampled biogas households, observation, discussion and key informants interviews. The main objective of this study was to collect the data about biogas production, use and potentially to increase biogas production efficiency. Microsoft Excel and descriptive statistics in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) were used to analyse the household characteristics such as energy use pattern and feedstock availability. Biogas production capacity depends on the amount of feedstock feed and ambient temperature condition. Cattle dung is the most common feedstock for domestic biogas plant in Nepal, however, dung only (mono-digestion) may not always be effective both from quantity and quality perspectives. Use of crop residues along with it (co-digestion) could fulfil feedstock deficit and increase biogas production capacity. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) model was used to calculate biogas yield at mono-digestion and co-digestion condition both at standard temperature & pressure (STP) and other temperature range. Volumetric Methane Production (VMP) model was used to analyse daily biogas production capacity increment due to co-digestion.
pp. 878-885
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S13C: Ultrasound, Infrared and Imaging Room No. ENG 3401/401-403

Chair: Takehito Azuma (Utsuminiya University, Japan)
15:00 Estimation of UAV Position Using LiDAR Images for Autonomous Navigation Over the Ocean
Jose Braga (INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil); Haroldo Campos Velho (INPE - Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil); Elcio Hideiti Shiguemori (Instituto de Estudos Avançados - IEAv, Brazil)
The use of autonomous navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is growing every day, in many areas, due to the low cost of its deployment and it does not need a pilot in a ground station. The most applied technique for autonomous navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is the joint use of Global Navigation Satellite System with Inertial Navigation System, an alternative for this technique is the autonomous navigation through image processing. To perform the autonomous navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles through image processing are used usually images that has landmarks in the ground to guide the trajectory. But, still is a challenge perform the autonomous navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles through image processing, without Global Navigation Satellite System combined with Inertial Navigation System, over regions without landmarks, such as the ocean. Therefore, this research presents a methodology to perform the estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles position in LiDAR images to allow that it performs the autonomous navigation over the ocean.
pp. 886-891
15:18 Design and Development of Acoustic Transducer Array using PVDF for Imaging Application
Khairul Azman Ahmad (Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia); Asrulnizam Abd Manaf (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia); Mohd Ikhwan Hadi Yaacob (Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris & Physics Kit & Instrumentation Research Group, Malaysia); Mohamad Faizal Abd Rahman (Universiti Sains Malaysia & Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia, Malaysia)
An acoustic transducer arrays was designed and developed for imaging application. There were two type of design and namely as single linear transducer array and dual linear transducer array. The transducer array has been break up into three different pitch element designs, 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm. The acoustic transducer array has been developed using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sheet and deposited on printed circuit board (PCB). The sensitivity of all transducers are evaluated and analysed. The setup measurement are based on reciprocity calibration method. The sensitivity of acoustic transducer array based on pitch element has shown in the result. The 1.5 mm pitch element gap has more sensitivity in 28 dB compare to 0.5 mm.
pp. 892-896
15:36 Ultrasonic transmission and reflection measurements of a rat skull
Paul Harris and Russell Petherick (Callaghan Innovation, New Zealand)
An ultrasonic pulse-echo and transmission system was developed to enable measurements on rat skulls for the frequency range 0.5MHz to 10MHz. Experimental results showed that for frequencies below 2MHz transmission through the skull was high whilst above 5MHz the transmission is low and falling with increasing frequency; the reflected signal magnitude was comparatively constant. MicroCT imaging shows that the pores within the skull are of a size that in this frequency range would cause scattering of the propagating wave and the ultrasonic data does show the onset of an acoustic loss mechanism in the frequency range between 2MHz and 5MHz.
pp. 897-902
15:54 Estimation of UAV position with use of thermal infrared images
Wanessa Silva (INPE - Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais & IEAv - Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Brazil); Elcio Hideiti Shiguemori (Instituto de Estudos Avançados - IEAv, Brazil); Nandamudi Lankalapalli Vijaykumar and Haroldo Campos Velho (INPE - Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil)
The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles has increased and become indispensable for many applications where human intervention is exhausting, dangerous or expensive. With this increase in UAV employment, autonomous navigation has been the subject of several studies. For this purpose, several systems have been used, among them, image processing, that is an alternative to the Global Positioning System. The employment of images in an autonomous navigation system has challenges, among them, the night flight. In this context, this article presents a study to estimate the UAV's geographical position with use of infrared images. From this image, a search is made in a georeferenced satellite image in the visible band. To automatically register between aerial and satellite images, edge information extracted by Artificial Neural Networks are used. The artificial neural network is automatically configured with use of Multiple Particle Collision Algorithm. Furthermore, the estimation of the UAV's position is obtained by calculating the correlation index. The results are promissing to be employed in night autonomous navigation.
pp. 903-908
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S13D: Educational and Other Applications Room No. ENG 3401/401-404

Chair: Joyanta Kumar Roy (MCKV Institute of Engineering & System Advance Technologies Pvt. Ltd., India)
15:00 Novel Application of Kinect Sensor to Support Immersive Learning within Museum for Children
Ryuichi Yoshida, Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai and T. Nakadai (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Takeki Ogitsu (Tokyo University of Science & Faculty of Science and Technology, Japan); Hiroshi Takemura (Noda Tus, Japan); Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Machi Saito (Tama Art University, Japan); Ryohei Egusa, Shinichi Kamiyama, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki and Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan); Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan); Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan); Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan)
This paper presents a system to support learning within museum for children as a novel application of Kinect based human sensing system. The system measures the physical movement of the learner using a Kinect sensor, and provides a sense of immersion in the paleontological environment by adapting the surroundings according to these movements. As the first stage of this project, we have developed a prototype system that allows learners to experience the paleontological environment. Here, we evaluated the performance of the sensor of BESIDE in order to confirm whether or not this system can put into practice BESIDE at the museum. This paper summarizes the current system and describes the evaluation results.
pp. 909-912
15:18 A sensor platform for the visually impaired to walk straight avoiding obstacles
Shashini De silva (University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka); Dileeka Dias (, Sri Lanka)
We present a sensor platform to be mounted on the white cane used by the visually impaired. This can estimate the direction of user movement and enable the user to detect obstacles lying on the path in advance. The sensor platform contains an ultrasonic sensor and an IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit). We develop a model to estimate distances to obstacles in the path and their width based on sensor measurements. The model is demonstrated to have an overall accuracy of 84\%, with accuracies as high as 90\% for obstacles within 50cm in front of the user. Knowledge of obstacle locations and their size in advance, would enable us to guide visually impaired persons to deviate from their path and return to it after the obstacle has been passed.
pp. 913-918
15:36 Sensing Student Presence - Augmented Reality for the Lecture Hall
Clemens Martin (Baden Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University & Faculty of Business, Germany); Heba Zakaria (German University of Cairo, Germany)
In this article we describe an augmented reality approach in which cheap WiFi-sensing capabilities can be utilized to aid instructors in identifying who is in her classroom. This is achieved by locating a student's WiFi enabled device such as a laptop, a tablet or a smart phone by measuring the devices signal strength and using this location to map a student's digital photograph into a 3-D representation of the classroom and associating the students name. This paper presents and approach to the presented problem and concentrates on the sensing accuracy and the expected errors in such a setup.
pp. 919-924
15:54 An Intelligent and Modular Sensing System for Augmented Reality Application
Md Fasiul Alam (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens & Pervasive Computing Research Group, Greece)
The scientific objective of this paper is to describe an innovative architecture of modular form in sensing and supervision system. In our study, a maintenance work at ATLAS detector in Large Hadron Collider at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland has been considered. The research challenges lie in the development of real-time data-transmission, instantaneous analysis of data coming from different inputs, local intelligences in low power embedded system, interaction with augmented reality in multiple on-site users, complex interfaces, and portability. The proposed architecture is allocated with modular form. The prototype of this modular device is named a PSS (Personnel Supervision System) module. The hardware of the modular system includes with many sensor modules, cameras, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors, processors, WiFi module, laser, LED light plus its associated software. The mobile PSS module is responsible for local data processing for various sensors, image processing, 3D pose estimation, audio data acquisition, visualization and wireless interfaced devices. The advantage of modular concept is that it can work independently or together. The Head Mounted Display (HMD) includes HW and SW to communicate the augmented reality content to the user and to display visual information on a worker's field of view (FOV). The module serves as a supervision post, providing sensor data, video and audio stream to the supervisor. It stores data and provide the means for the supervisor to easily communicate and instruct the worker. It decides, selects and serves the AR (Augmented) content on multiple PTUs, automatically or with minor supervisor intervention. The development of this system to be compatible with a wearable use in a highly challenging environment presents an excellent opportunity to integrate today's leading technical knowledge in a product which can become accessible to industry and general public. This study is a part of the EDUSAFE project, a Marie Curie ITN project focusing on research into the use of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) during planned and emergency maintenance in extreme environments.
pp. 925-930
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16:45 - 17:15 S14: Closing Ceremony and Prize Distribution

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